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University of Guelph
BIOL 1080
David Dyck

Lecture 11y Blood consists of plasma platelets white blood cells and red blood cells o Plasma transports materials in blood o Platelets are cell fragments essential for blood clotting o White blood cells defend against disease o Red blood cells transport oxygen y Stem cells o Are undifferentiated cells in the red bone marrow that give rise to all the formed elements o Divide and specialize o Specific functions include red blood cells white blood cells granulocytes agranulocytes and platelets y White blood cells can move in and out of capillaries peripheral tissue y Red blood cells and platelets do not move in and out y Migrant cell support or attack o Support a self marker MHC major histocompatibility complex labels cells as self or friend o Attack invader enters body macrophage engulfs invader macrophage places piece of invader on its surface with the self MHC marker and than macrophage presents antigen to a helper Tcell and secretes a chemical that activates the helper Tcell o During attack the antigen is not detected till engulfed or presented on MHC o The helper Tcell than can activate nave B cell response or nave cytotoxic T cell response they can be both activated at same time This activation requires macrophagesy Nave B cell o Antibodymediated response o Bcell is a launcher o B cell divides activates multiplies secretes antibodies which attract macrophages and then they target toxins outside of cells y Nave Cytotoxic T cello Cell based immunity response o Kill by chemical means punch holes in target cell membrane eg perforinso T cell divides activates and targets cells infected with the intracellular pathogen cancer cellsy Memory cellso Are stored hopefully for lifetime in bone marrow and thymuso Provide a quick response to the antigen in a future encountero Brain carries memory ndo 2 time faster and better response o memory allows adaption must faster o colds are constantly mutating y T suppressor cells
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