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Computing and Information Science
CIS 1200

Chapter One of Technology in Action: Why Computers Matter To You: Becoming Computer Literate  Computer Literate: being familiar enough with computers that you understand their capabilities and limitations and you know how to use them  Benefits of being computer literate: o Can use your computer more wisely and be a more knowledgeable consumer o Computer-literate employees are sought after in almost every vocation o Becoming computer literate will help you better understand and take advantage of future technologies o Being a savvy computer user and consumer  Avoid hackers and viruses  Protecting your privacy  Understanding the real risks  Using the Internet and Web wisely  Avoiding online annoyances (i.e. spam)  Being able to maintain, upgrade, and troubleshoot your computer o Knowing which technologies are on the horizon and how to integrate them into your home setup when possible o Saving money, time, and endless frustration by having a strong background in the basics of how computers and computer systems work  Information Technology (IT): a field of study focused on managing and processing information and the automatic retrieval of information o Includes computers, telecommunicators, and software employment  Data Mining: the process of searching huge amounts of data with the hope of finding a pattern  Business: Data on the Go --> i.e. UPS o Uses a wide variety of different computers and technology to ensure the package goes to the right location  Computers can be used for arts o Advertisement o Contacting employers or places to perform/show art o Dance and music programs use computer to create new performances for audiences  Offshored: sent to other countries o Video game development will most likely stay in the US, rather than being offshored  Advantages of the Internet in the classroom: o Research tool for students o Effective use of the internet allows teachers to expose students to places students otherwise could not access o Simulations and instructional software programs on the web that are good learning tools  Computer Forensics: analyzes computer systems with specific techniques to gather potential legal evidence  Radio Frequency Identification Tags (RFID tags): small versions of the roadway electronic toll systems used in many states to collect tolls automatically as drivers pass through toll stations  Patient Simulation: life-sized, computer-controlled mannequins that can speak, breathe, and blink o Medical students can train on patient simulators and experience firsthand how a human would react to their treatments  Public Domain: bioengineers are creating realistic computer simulations of all systems and features of the human anatomy  Nanoscience: involves the study of molecules and structures that range in size from 1 to 100 nm  Nanotechnology: the science of using nanostructures to build devices on an extremely small scale  Affective Computing: computing that relates to emotion or deliberately tries to influence emotion Chapter Two of Technology in Action: The History of the PC  Altair 8800: the very first personal computer o Launched in 1975 o 256 bytes of memory! o No keyboard, monitor, or printer  Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs built Apple together o Apple I was Apple's first PC o Apple II had a colour monitor, sound, and game paddles o Apple III followed shortly after  Commodore PET 2001 and TRS-80 were Apple's biggest competition  Osborne: the first portable computer o Their competition was the Executive  IBM PC: the 1982 machine of the year  Beginners All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC): programming language that the beginning programming student could easily learn o Bill Gates and Paul Allen used BASIC to write Microsoft  Disk II: a smaller, 5.25 inch floppy disk subsystem  Disk Operating System (DOS): the OS that controlled the first Apple computers  Control Program for Microcomputers (CP/M): the first OS designed for the Intel 8080 chip  MS-DOS: for IBM computers  Quick and Dirty Operating System (QDOS): Microsoft bought the rights to it and distributed it to IBM  VisiCalc: the first spreadsheet program available for personal computers o Soon after followed Lotus 1-2-3 and Microsoft Excel  WordStar: first word processing applications o Competitors included Word for MS-DOS (Microsoft Word)  Graphical User Interface: allowed users to interact with the computer more easily  Xerox: photocopier manufacturer o Began making own PC called Alto  Lisa: introduced by Apple, first successful computer to introduce GUI  Macintosh: Apple introduced this a year after Lisa o Cheaper and better than Lisa  Mosaic: first web browser  Windows 95: first Microsoft OS designed to be principally a GUI OS, although it still was based on DOS  Pascalene: first accurate mechanical calculator o Calculated by Blaise Pascal  Jacquard Loom: made by Joseph Jacquard, created the machine that automated the weaving of complex machines o Used for fabric industries  Analytical Engine: designed by Charles Babbage, first automatic calculator o Based off the Difference Engine, which was a huge steam-powered mechanical calculator designed to print astronomical tables  Hollerith Tabulating Machine: created by Herman Hollerith, used to punch cards to tabulate census data  Z1: created by Konrad Zuse, first computer to include such features that are integral to today's system, such as a control unit and separate memory functions  Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC): first computer to use vacuum tubes, instead of mechanical switches  Harvard Mark I: designed by Howard Aiken and Grace Hopper, could perform all four arithmetic operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)  Complier: a program that translates English language instructions into computer language  Turing Machine: created by Alan Turing, a hypothetical model that mathematically defined a mechanical procedure  Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC): government-sponsored machine developed to calculate the settings used for weapons o Created by John W. Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert  Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC): first commercially successful electronic digital computer  Transistor: another means to store data o Computers that used transistors were referred to as second-generation computers  Integrated Circuit: created by Jack Kilby, a small chip capable of containing thousands of transistors o Computers that had this were called third-generation computers  Microprocessor Chip: small chip containing millions of transistors o Functions as the CPU (or brains) of the computer o Computers that had this were called fourth-generation computers A computer is a data processing device that performs four major functions:  o It gathers data, or allows users to input data o It processes that data into information o It outputs data and information o It stores data and information  Data: representation of a fact/figure/idea o Can be a number, word, a picture, or even a recording of a sound  Information: data that been organized or presented in a meaningful fashion  Binary Language: consists of two digits, 0 and 1; the computer language o Each 0 or 1 is a binary digit, or bit o Eight bits combine to create to form one byte  Hardware: any part of the computer you can physically touch  Application Software: the set of programs you use on a computer to help you carry out tasks  System Software: a set of program that enables your computer's hardware devices and application software to work together  Operating System (OS): the program that controls the way in which your computer system functions  Notebook Computer: a portable computer that is powered by batteries and has a keyboard, monitor, and other devices integrated into a single compact case  Netbook: a small, lightweight notebook computer that has a longer battery life than a notebook computer  Tablet PC: similar to a notebook but features a touch-sensitive screen that can swivel and fold flat  Desktop Computer: intended for use at a single location, and is therefore stationary  Peripheral Device: a component, such as a monitor or keyboard, that is connected to the computer  All-In-One Computer: not just the computer's processor and memory, but also its monitor  Mainframe: a large, expensive computer that supports hundreds of users simultaneously  Supercomputer: a specifically designed computer that can perform complex calculations extremely rapidly  Embedded Computer: a specifically designed computer chip that resides in another device  Optical Mouse: uses an internal sensor or laser to detect the mouse's movement  Trackball Mouse: has a rollerball on top or on the side of the mouse, and you move the ball with your fingers, allowing the mouse to remain stationary  LCD Monitor: o Flat-panel monitor o Light and efficient  Aspect Ratio: the width-to-height proportion of a monitor  Resolution: the clearness or sharpness of the image, reflects the number of pixels on the screen  Constant Ratio: the measure of the difference in light intensity between the brightest white and darkest black that the monitor can produce  Viewing Angle: an LCD's viewing angle, which is measured in degrees, tells how far you can move to the side of (or above/below) the monitor before the image quality degrades to unacceptable levels  Brightness: a measure of the greatest amount of light showing when the monitor is displaying pure white  Response Time: the measurement of time it takes for a pixel to change colour  Motherboard: the main circuit board that contains the central electronic components of the computer  Found in the motherboard: o Expansion Cards/Adapter Cards: circuit boards that provide additional functionality (typically found in sound/video cards) o Sound Card: provides a connection for the speakers and microphone o Video Card: provides a connection for the monitor o Modem Card: provides the computer with a connection to the Internet via a traditional phone line o Network Interface Card (NIC): enables the computer to connect with other computers or to a cable modem to facilitate a high-speed Internet connection  System Unit: the metal or plastic case that also houses the power source and all the storage devices  RAM: the place in a computer where the programs and data the computer is currently are stored o Temporary or volatile storage location  ROM: holds all the instructions the computer needs to start up when the computer is powered on o Instructions stored on here are permanent  CPU: sometimes referred to as the "brain" of the computer because it controls all the functions performed by the computer's other components and processes all the commands issued to it by software instructions  Drive Bay: permanent storage devices are located in the desktop or notebook computer in this space o Internal Hard Drive: holds all permanently stored programs and data  Hard Drive: computer's primary device for permanent storage of software and documents o Nonvolatile storage: holds it permanently  External Hard Drive: like an internal hard drive, but it has been made portable by making it small and lightweight and enclosing it in a protective case  Optical Drive: can read from and even write to CDs, DVDs, or Blu-ray discs Chapter Three of Technology in Action: Using the Internet  The Internet: the largest computer network in the world  Web Browser: software that enables a user to display and interact with text and other media on the web  E-Mail Clients: software programs running on your computer that access your Internet service provider (ISP), which acts like an electronic post office  Newsgroup: similar to a discussion group or forum in which people create threads (conversations)  Internet Relay Chat (IRC): primarily a means of synchronous group communication used in discussion forums  Web 2.0: an evolved type of Web interactions between people, software, and data o "Social Web"  Wiki: a type of website that allows users to change its content by adding, removing, or editing the content  Really Simple Syndication (RSS): a XML-based format that facilitates the delivery of frequent content updates on Web pages  Aggregators: software programs that go out and grab the latest updates of web material according to your specifications  E-Commerce: the process of conducting business online, such as through advertising and selling products  Business-To-Consumer (B2C): exchanges that take place between businesses and consumers  Business-To-Business (B2B): consists of businesses buying and selling goods and services to other businesses  Consumer-To-Consumer (C2C): consumers selling to each other through online auction and exchange sites  Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP): the protocol that allows files to be transferred from a web server so that you can see the website on your computer by using a browser  File Transfer Protocol (FTP): used to upload and download files from your computer to a web server  Host: the location that maintains the computers that store the website files  Top-Level Domain: the suffix in the domain name after the dot (i.e. .com)  Path/Subdirectory: the stuff after the slash in a website, it's what identifies each different page within a particular website; it follows the top-level domain  Breadcrumb Trail: a list of pages within a website you've visited  Live Bookmark: feature of Firefox o When site is updated, your computer lets you know  Social Bookmarking/Tagging: lets you store, organize, and manage bookmarks of webpages  Metasearch Engine: search other search engines rather than individual websites  Spider: constantly collects data from the web, following links in websites and reading webpages  Subject Directory: a structured outline of websites organized by topics and subtopics  Boolean Operators: words such AND, NOT, and OR that describe the relationships between keywords in a search  Helpful search strategies: o Search for a phrase o Search within a specific website o Use a wild card (*)  Client: a computer that asks for data  Server: a computer that receives the request and returns the data to the client  Internet Protocol Address (IP Address): a set of four numbers separated by periods and commonly referred to as a dotted quad or dotted decimal o The means by which all computers connected to the Internet identify each other  Dial-Up Connection: you connect to the Internet using a standard telephone line  Broadband/High-Speed Internet: a type of connection that offers a faster means to connect to the Internet  Digital Subscriber Line (DSL): uses a standard phone line to connect your computer to the Internet  Cable: uses your television's cable service provider to connect to the Internet  Fiber-Optic Service: uses plastic or glass cables to transfer data at the speed of light  Aircard: devices that either into a USB port or a special slot on the side of a notebook called an Express card slot o Enables users to have wireless Internet access with laptops  Dial-Up Modem: a device that converts the digital signals the computer understands into analog signals that can travel over phone lines  Data Transfer Rate: the measurement of how fast data travels between computers  Large Scale Networking (LSN): their aim is to fund the research and development and wireless technologies and to increase the speed of networks Chapter Four of Technology in Action: Application Software  Program: provides a means for us to interact with and use the computer, even if we lack specialized programming skills  Application Software: the software you use to do tasks at home, school, and work o Can do a lot of things, such as writing letters, sending e-mails, paying taxes, etc.  System Software: includes software such as Windows and Mac OS X, which help to run the computer and coordinate instructions between application software and the computer's hardware devices  Productivity Software: includes programs that enable you to perform various tasks required at home, school, and business o Includes word processing, spreadsheet, presentation, database, and personal information manager (PIM) programs  Open Source Software: program code that is publicly available and has few restrictions  Propriety Software: which is neither free nor open source, the code can be copied, distributed, or changed without the stringent copyright protections of software products you purchase  Web-Based Applications: can be accessed from any computer that has an Internet connection  Database Software: powerful applications that allow you to store and organize data  Personal Information Manager (PIM) Software: strive to replace the management tools found on a traditional desk (i.e. calendar, address book, notepad, and to-do lists)  Wizard: a systematic guide that walks you through the steps necessary to complete to a complicated task  Template: a predesigned form  Macro: a small program that groups a series of commands so they will run as a single command  Integrated Software Application: a single software program that incorporates the most commonly used tools of many productivity software programs into a single integrated program  Tax Preparation Software: enable you to prepare your state and federal taxes on your own instead of hiring a professional  Financial Planning Software: helps you manage your daily finances  Multimedia Software: includes image, video, and audio editing software  Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB): a self-regulatory body established in 1994 by the Entertainment Software Association o Their rating system helps consumers choose the computer and video games that are right for their families by providing information about game content so they can make informed purchasing decisions  Desktop Publishing (DTP) Software: allows you to incorporate and arrange graphics and text in your documents in creative ways  Web Page Authoring Software: allows even the novice to design interesting and interactive web pages, without knowing any HTML code  Project Management Software: helps project managers create and modify scheduling charts  Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Software: store sales and client contact information in one central database  Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) System: lets a business consolidate multiple systems into one and improve coordination of these business areas across multiple departments  Vertical Market Software: software designed for a specific industry  Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Programs: a form of 3D modeling that engineers use to create automated designs, technical drawings, and model visualization  Integrated Help: the documentation is built directly into the software so you don't need to keep track of bulky manuals  Software Licence: an agreement between you, the user, and software company o A legal contract that outlines the acceptable uses of the program and any actions that violate the agreement  Bloatware: pre-installed software  Software as a Service (SaaS): instead of the traditional model that requires software to be purchased and installed on individual machines or network servers, with the SaaS delivery model, the application is hosted online by the vendor and made available to the customer over the Internet o These applications are called web-based applications  Shareware: distributed free, but with certain conditions  System Requirements: specify the minimum recommended standards for the OS, processor, RAM, and hard drive capacity  Full Installation: will copy all the files and programs from the distribution disc to the computer's hard drive  Custom Installation: you can decide which features you want installed on the hard drive Chapter Five of Technology in Action: Using System Software  Operating System (OS): a group of programs that controls how your computer system functions  Utility Program: a small program that performs many of the general house-keeping tasks for the computer  Microsoft Disk Operating System (MS-DOS): the first widely installed operating system in personal computers  Real-Time Operating System (RTOS): require minimal user interaction o Machinery that is required to perform a repetitive series of specific tasks in an exact amount of time requires a RTOS  Multiuser Operator System/Network Operating System: enables more than one user to access the computer system at one time by efficiently handling and prioritizing request from multiple users  Server: the computer on a network that manages network resources such as printers  UNIX: a multiuser, multitask operating system used as a network operating system, primarily with mainframes, although it is also often found on PCs  Mainframe: responsible for storing, managing, and simultaneously processing data from all users  Firmware: control a device, as well as other programs that come with the personal media player or gaming device  Platform: a combination of operating system and processer  Linux: an open source operating system designed for use on personal computers and as a network OS  Source Code: the actual lines of instructional code that make the program work  Functions of the OS: o Provides a way for the user to interact with the computer o Manages the processor or CPU o Manages the memory and storage o Manages the computer system's hardware and peripheral devices o Provides a consistent means for software applications to work with the CPU  User Interface: enables to you to interact with the computer  Command-Driven Interface: one in which you enter commands to communicate with the computer system  Menu-Driven Interface: one in which choose commands from menus displayed on the screen  Graphical User Interface (GUI): display graphics and use the point-and-click technology of the mouse and cursor, making them much more user-friendly  Interrupt: when you tell your computer to do something, it generates a unique signal that tells the OS that it is in need of immediate attention  Interrupt Handler: a special numerical code that prioritizes the requests  Pre-emptive Multitasking: the OS processes the task assigned a higher priority before processing a task that has been assigned a lower priority  Spooler: a program that helps coordinate all print jobs currently being sent to the printer  Virtual Memory: the process of optimizing RAM storage by borrowing hard drive space  Swap File/Page File: when more RAM is needed, the OS swaps out from RAM the data or instructions that have not been recently used and moves the to a temporary storage area on the hard drive (this is the swap file)  Thrashing: the condition of excessing paging  Device Driver: facilitates communication between the hardware device and the OS  Plug and Play (PnP): a software and hardware standard that Microsoft created with the Windows 95 OS o Designed to facilitate the installation of new hardware in PCs by including in the OS the drivers these devices need in order to run  Application Programing Interface (API): rather than having the same blocks of code for similar procedures in each program, the OS includes the blocks of code (APIs) o This is what the application software needs in order to interact with the OS  Boot Process: computer knows what to do if there's nothing in the RAM because it runs through the boot process to load the operating system into RAM  Steps involved in a boot process: o The basic input/output system (BIOS) is activated by powering on the CPU o The BIOS checks that all attached devices are in place (called a power-on self-test or POST) o The OS is loaded into RAM o Configuration and customization settings are checked  BIOS: a program that manages the exchange of data between the OS and all the input and output devices attached to the system, hence its name Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS): a special kind of memory that uses almost  no power  System Files: the main files of the OS  Kernel/Supervisor Program: essential component of the OS o Responsible for managing the processor and all other components of the computer system  Registry: contains all of the different configurations used by the OS and other applications  Authentication: the verification of your login o Blocks unauthorized users from entering the system  Safe Mode: a special diagnostic mode designed for troubleshooting errors  Device Manager: a feature in the OS that lets you view and change the properties of all devices attached to your computer  Last Known Good Configuration: when you choose to boot your computer with the LKCG, the OS starts your computer using the registry information that was saved during the last shutdown  Root Directory: the C drive is the top of the filing structure of the computer system  Windows Explorer: the main tool for finding, viewing, and managing the contents of your computer  File Path: starts with the drive in which the file is located and includes all folders, subfolders (if any), the file name, and the extension  Path Separator: the backslash character  File Compression Utility: a program that takes out redundancies in a file to reduce the file size  Disk Defragmenter: groups related pieces of files on the hard drive, thereby allowing the OS to work more efficiently  Error-Checking: a Windows utility that checks for lost files and fragments as well as physical errors on your hard drive  File Allocation Table (FAT): an index of all sector numbers in a table  System Restore: lets you roll your system settings back to a specific date when everything was working properly  System Restore Point: a snapshot of your entire system's settings, is made every week and prior to certain events, such as installing or updating software  Backup and Restore Utility: you can create a duplicate copy of all the data on your hard drive and copy it to another storage device  Task Scheduler Utility: allows you to schedule tasks to run automatically at predetermined times, with no additional action necessary on your party Chapter Six of Technology in Action: Understanding and Assessing Hardware  Moore's Law: describes the pace at which CPUs - the small chips that can be thought of as the "brains" of the computer - improve o Named after Gordon Moore o Rule predicts that the number of transistors inside a CPU will increase so fast that CPU capacity will double every 18 months  External SATA: fast transfer port on a notebook  ExpressCard: adds functionality to a notebook o Can add eSATAs through this  System Evaluation: look at computer's subsystems, see what they do, and check how they perform o Includes:  CPU subsystem  Memory subsystem (the computer's RAM)  Storage subsystem (hard drive and other drives)  Video subsystem (video card and monitor)  Audio subsystem (sound card and speakers)  Ports  Different types of processors including Intel processors and AMD processors  How does the CPU work? o CPU comprised of two units: the control unit and the arithmetic logic unit (ALU) o Control unit coordinates the activities of all other computer components o ALU is responsible for performing all the arithmetic calculations and makes logic and comparison decisions  Steps for the CPU to perform a program instruction: o First, gets the required piece of data or instruction from the RAM, the temporary storage location for all the data and instructions the computer needs while it is running o Next, decodes the instruction into something the computer can understand o Once decoded, it executes the instruction and stores the result to RAM before fetching the next instruction o This is called a machine cycle  Primary distinction between CPUs is processing power  Core: a complete processing section from a CPU embedded into one physical chip  Clock Speed: how quickly a processor can work  Cache Memory: the amount of immediate access memory the CPU has o Level One: a block of memory that is built onto the CPU chip for the storage of data or commands that have been used o Level Two: located on the CPU chip but is slightly farther away from the CPU, or it's on a separate chip next to the CPU and therefore takes somewhat longer to access  Contains more storage area than level 1 o Level Three: slower for the CPU to reach but larger in size  Hyperthreading: provides quicker processing of information by enabling a new set of instructions to start executing before the previous set has finished o Allows two different programs to be processed at one time, but they are sharing the computing resources of the chip o With multiple cores, each program has the full attention of its own processing core = faster processing and smoother multitasking  Front Side Bus (FSB): connects the processor (CPU) in your computer to the system memory o The faster the FSB is, the faster you can get data on your processor o The faster you get data to the processor, the faster your processor can work on it o Measured in megahertz  Benchmarks: measurements used to compare CPU performance between processors  CPU Usage: percentage of time that your CPU is working  Random Access Memory (RAM): computer's temporary storage space o Short term memory o Remembers everything that the computer needs to process the data into information  Volatile Storage: computer memory that requires power to maintain the stored information (i.e. RAM)  Non-Volatile Storage: devices for permanent storage of instructions and data when the computer is powered off (i.e. ROM)  Memory Cards/Modules: small circuit boards that hold a series of RAM chips and fit into special slots on the motherboard o Dual inline memory modules (DIMMs)  Physical Memory: the amount of RAM that is actually sitting on memory modules in your computer  Kernel Memory: the memory that your OS uses  Hard Drive: has the largest storage capacity of any storage device  Access Time: the time it takes a storage device to locate its stored data and make it available for processing  Solid State Drive (SSD): uses the same kind of memory that flash drives use, but SSD can access data much faster  Platter: a hard drive is composed of several coated round, thin plates of metal stacked on a spindle o Each plate is a platter o When data is saved to a hard drive platter, a pattern of magnetized spots is created on the iron oxide coating of each platter o When the spots are aligned in one direction they represent a 1, and in the other direction they represent a 0  Binary code  Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (Serial ATA): use much thinner cables and can transfer data more quickly than Integrated Drive Electronics  Video Card: an expansion card that is installed inside your system unit to translate binary data into the images you view on your monitor  Video Memory: video card's RAM  Graphics Processing Unit (GPU): performs the same kind of computational work that a CPU performs o However, a GPU is specialized to handle dedec graphics and image and video processing with incredible efficiency and speed  Bit Depth: the number of bits the video card uses to represent each pixel on the monitor; defines the colour quality of the image displayed  3D Sound Card: advances sound reduction beyond traditional stereo sound and is better at convincing the human ear that sound is omnidirectional, meaning that you can't tell from the direction the sound is coming  Surround Sound: a type of audio processing that makes the listener experience sound as if it were coming from all directions  To ensure system performs reliably: o Clean out Startup folder o Clear out unnecessary files o Run spyware and adware removal programs o Run the Disk Defragmenter utility on your hard drive Chapter Seven of Technology in Action: Networking  Network: two or more computers that are connected via software and hardware so that they can communicate with each other  Node: each device connected to a network o Can be a computer, a peripheral (such as an all-in-one printer), a game console, a digital video recorder, or a communications device (such as a modem)  Main function for most networks is to facilitate information sharing, but networks provide other benefits: o Allow sharing of peripheral devices o Can easily share files between networked computers without having to use portable storage devices such as flash drives to transfer the files o Can set sharing options in Windows or OS X that allow the user of each computer on the network to access files stored on any other computer on the network  Disadvantages of networks: o Purchase of additional equipment to set them up o Some need to be administered  Network administration involves: o Installing new computers and devices o Monitoring the network to ensure it is performing efficiently o Updating and installing new software on the network o Configuring, or setting up, proper security for a network  Network Architecture: design of a network  Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Network: each node connected to the network can communicate directly with every other node on the network o Thus, all nodes on this type of network are peers (equals)  Client/Server Network: contains two different types of computers: clients and servers o Client: a computer on which users accomplish specific tasks and make specific requests o Server: the computer that provides information or resources to the client computers on the network  Internet Service Provider (ISP): your computer connects to a server computer maintained by the ISP  Home Network Server: designed to store media, share media across the network, and back up files on computers connected to the network o All computers connected to the network can access the server  Local Area Network (LAN): a network in which the nodes are located within a small geographic area  Home Area Network (HAN): a network located in a home o Used to connect all of a home's digital devices  Wide Area Network (WAN): made up of LANs connected over long distances  Metropolitan Area Network (MAN): when a network is designed to provide access to a specific geographic area, such as an entire city  To function, all networks must include: o A means of connecting the nodes on the network (cables or wireless technology) o Special devices that allow the nodes to communicate with each other and to send data o Software that allows the network to run  Transmission Media: establishes a communications channel between the nodes on a network and can either be wireless or wired o Wireless networks use radio waves to connect nodes  Twisted-Pair Cables: made up of copper wires that are twisted around each other and surrounded by a plastic jacket  Coaxial Cable: consists of a single copper wire surrounded by layers of plastic  Fiber-Optic Cable: made up of plastic or glass fibers that transmit data at extremely high speeds  Data Transfer Rate (Bandwidth): the maximum speed at which data can be transmitted between two nodes on a network  Throughput: the actual speed of data transfer that is achieved o Always less than equal to the data transfer rate  Network Adapters: devices connected to or installed in network nodes that enable the nodes to communicate with each other and access the network  Network Interface Card (NIC): all desktop and notebook computers (and many peripherals) sold today contain these, installed inside the device o Designed to use different types of transmission media  Network Navigation Devices: facilitate and control the flow of data a network o Data is sent over transmission media in bundles  Each bundle is a packet  Router: transfers packets of data between two or more networks  Switch: a "traffic cop" on the network o Switches receive data packets and send them to their intended nodes on the same network  Network Operating System (NOS): handles requests for information, Internet access, and the use of peripherals for the rest of the network nodes o Nodes don't directly communicate with each other but through a server  This is more efficient in a network with a large number of nodes but requires a more complex NOS software  Ethernet Network: uses the Ethernet protocol as the means (or standard) by which the nodes on the network communicate  802.11n Standard: also known as WiFi  Backward Compatibility: accommodation of current devices being able to use previously issued standards in addition to current standards  Transceiver: a device that translates the electronic data that needs to be sent along the network into radio waves and then broadcasts these radio waves to other network nodes o Serve a dual function because they also receive the signals from the network nodes  Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO): devices use this; designed to use multiple antennas for transmitting and receiving data  Gigabit Ethernet: most commonly used wired Ethernet standard deployed in devices designed for home networks  Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) Cable: composed of four pairs of wires that are twisted around each other to reduce electrical interference  Cat 6 Cable: designed to achieve data transfer rates that support a gigabit Ethernet network  Non-Ethernet networks in the home are extremely rare because: o Based on a well-established standard o Feature easy set-up o Provide good throughput for home networking needs o Cost effective  Data is transmitted through the transmission medium of an Ethernet network in packets  Network-Ready Device: can be connected directly to a router instead of to a computer on the network o Network-ready devices usually contain wireless and/or wired network adapters inside them  Network Attached Storage (NAS) Devices: specialized computing devices designed to store and manage your data  Functions of NAS devices: o Automatically back up all computers connected to the network o Act as a repository for files to be shared across the network o Function as an access gateway to allow any computer on the network to be accessed from a remote location via the Internet  Firewall: hardware or software solution that helps shield your network from prying eyes  Hacker: someone who breaks into computer systems to create mischief or steal valuable information  Piggybacking: connecting to a wireless network other than your own without the permission of the owner  To secure wireless networks: o Change your network name (SSID) o Disable SSID broadcast o Change the default password on your router o Turn on security protocols o Implement media access control o Limit your signal range o Apply firmware upgrades  Before running any wizards (a utility program included with software that you can use to help you accomplish a specific task), you should do the following: o Make sure there are network adapters on each node o For any wired connections , plug all the cables into the router, nodes, and so on o Make sure your broadband modem is connected to your router and that the modem is connected to the Internet o Turn on your equipment in the following order (allowing the modem and the router about one minute each to power up and configure):  Your broadband modem  Your router  All computers and peripherals  Wireless Range Extender: a device that amplifies your wireless signal to get it out to parts of your home that are experiencing poor connectivity Chapter Eight of Technology in Action: Digital Lifestyle  Analog: sound/light waves that illustrate the loudness of a sound or the brightness of colours in an image at a given moment o Continuous  Analog-to-Digital Conversion: incoming analog signal is measured many times each second and strength of the signal at each measurement is recorded as a simple number; the series of numbers produced by the analog-to-digital conversion process gives us the digital form of the wave  Telephony: the use of equipment to provide voice communications over a distance  Analog-to-Digital Converter Chip: used in cell phones; converts voice sound waves into digital signals  Digital Signal Processor: specialized chip that compresses the digital data so it will transmit faster to another phone  Base Transceiver Station: large group of communications tower with antennas, amplifiers, receivers, and transmitters  Mobile Switching Center: when you place a call on a cell phone, a base station picks up the request for service; station passes request to this central location  Syncing/Synchronizing: process of updating your data so that the files on your cell phone and computer are the same  Short Message Service (SMS)/Text Messaging: technology that allows you to send short text messages over mobile networks  Store-and-Forward: when text is sent, SMS calling center receives the message and delivers it to the appropriate mobile device using this  Multimedia Message Service (MMS): allows you to send messages that include text, sound, images, and video clips to other phones or email addresses  Wireless Internet Service Provider (Wireless ISP): must have this to connect smartphone to the internet  Microbrowser: software that provides a Web browser that is optimized to display web content effectively on a smaller screen  Wireless Markup Language (WML): web sites are being created with content specifically designed for wireless devices, which is text based and contains no graphics and is written in WML  Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP): a form of voice-based Internet communication that turns a standard Internet connection into a means to place phone calls, including long-distance calls o Advantages: low cost for long-distance calls, portable o Disadvantages: low sound quality, loss of service is power is interrupted, low security  Sampling Rate: specifies the number of times the analog wave is measured per second - the higher the sampling rate, the more accurately the original wave can be created  Flash Memory: a type of nonvolatile memory to store files, used typically in MP3 players  Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Sharing: users transferring files between computers  Tethered Downloads: pay for the music and own it, but are subject to restrictions on its use  DRM-Free Music: much without any digital rights management (i.e. iTunes)  Analog Photography: old school cameras that printed out pictures right away  Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) Arrays: digital cameras capture images on these electronic sensors and then convert the images to digital data  Resolution: the number of data points a digital camera records for each image captured o Measured in megapixels (MP)  Codec (Compression/Decompression): a rule, implemented either in software or hardware, that squeezes the same audio and video information into less space o Some information will be lost using compression  High Definition (HD): standard of digital TV signal that guarantees a specific level of resolution and a specific aspect ratio, which is the rectangular shape of the image  Ubiquitous Computing: concept that says that computing will be woven into the fabric of everyday life until it is indistinguishable from it  Copyleft: a term for various licensing plans that enables copyright holders to grant certain rights to the work while retaining other rights  Derivative Work: based on the original work but is modified in some way Chapter Nine of Technology in Action: Securing Your System  Cybercrime: defined as any criminal action perpetrated primarily through the use of a computer  Cybercriminals: individuals who use computers, networks, and the Internet to perpetrate crime  Computer Virus: a computer program that attaches itself to another computer program (the host program) and attempts to spread to other computers when files are exchanged  How viruses are passed from one computer to the next: o An individual writes a virus program disguised as a music file of a popular music group's new hit song and posts it to a file sharing site o Unsuspecting Bill downloads the "music file" and infects him computer o Bill sends his cousin Fred an e-mail with the infected "music file" and contaminates Fred's computer o Fred saves the MP3 file to a flash drive and then copies to his work computer and infects that machine as well o Everyone who copies files from Fred's infected computer at work, or whose computer is networked to Fred's computer, risks spreading the virus  Boot-Sector Virus: replicates itself into a hard drive's master boot record o Often transmitted by a flash drive left in a USB port  Master Boot Record: a program that executes whenever a computer boots up, ensuring that the virus will be loaded into memory immediately, even before some virus protection programs can load  Logic Bomb: a virus that is triggered when certain logical conditions are met - such as opening a program a certain number of times  Time Bomb: a virus that is triggered by a passage of time or on a certain date  Worm: slightly different from a virus in that a worm attempts to travel between systems through network connections to spread an infection  Antivirus Software: software specifically designed to detect viruses and protect your computer and files from harm  Script: a series of commands that is executed without your knowledge  Macro Virus: a virus that attaches itself to a document  E-mail Viruses: use the address book in the victim's e-mail system to distribute the virus  Encryption Viruses: when they infect your computer, they run a program that searches for common types of data files and compresses them using a complex encryption key that renders your files unusable  Types of viruses: o Polymorphic Virus: changes its own code to avoid detection o Multipartite Virus: designed to infect multiple file types in an effort to fool the antivirus software that is looking for it o Stealth Viruses: temporarily erase their code from the files where they reside and then hide in the active memory of the computer  Virus Signature: a portion of the virus code that is unique to a particular computer virus  Quarantining: o The antivirus software scans files when they're opened or executed o If it detects a virus signature or suspicious activity, it stops the execution of the file and virus and notifies you that it has detected a virus o Also places the virus in a secure area on your hard drive so that it won't spread infection to other files  Inoculation: antivirus software records key attributes about files on your computer and keeps these statistics in a safe place on your hard drive  To keep IM sessions safe: o Allow contact only from users on your Buddy or Friends List o Never automatically accept transfers of data o Avoid using instant messaging programs on public computers  Drive-By Download: o Many viruses exploit weaknesses in operating systems o Malicious Web sites can be set up to attack your computer by downloading harmful software onto your computer  To install updates you can choose to: o Install updates automatically o Download updates but let me choose whether to install them o Check for updates but let me choose whether to download and install them o Give me recommended updates o Microsoft Update  White-Hat Hacker: a hacker who breaks
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