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University of Guelph
Computing and Information Science
CIS 1200
John Saville

Chapter 1- Why Computers Matter to You: Becoming Computer Literate • Information technology: is a field of study focused on managing and processing information and the automatic retrieval of information. • A study from the National Research Council concludes that by year 2030 computers will displace humans in 60 percent of the current occupations. • Data Mining: is the process of searching huge amounts of data with the hope of finding a pattern. Allows retailers to respond to consumer buying patterns. o Can keep track of purchases customers are making, along with their geographical data, past buying history and list of items they examined but did not buy • Can be translated into extremely specific marketing that is immediate and customized to your shopping experience. This is the motivation behind discount cards at grocery and drug stores. Take personal information in exchange for better/discounted price. • United Parcel Service (UPS) handles more than 3.9 billion packages and letters a year… highly efficient package tracking starts when the sender drops off a package and the company creates a “smart label” for the package. In addition to the standard postal bar code and bar code showing UPS customer numbers, this smart label contains something called a Maxicode. The ma xicode is a specifically designed, scannable sticker that resembles an inkblot and contains all the important information about the package (class of service/ destination etc). In processing centers, UPS workers scan the maxicode using a portable handheld device, which uses Bluetooth technology, a type of wireless communication, to transmit the scanned data through radio waves to a terminal. This terminal then sends the data across a wireless network, where it is recorded in the UPS database. • A live dancer can be wired with sensors that are connected to a computer that captures the dancers’ movements. Based on the data it collects, the computer generates a virtual dancer on a screen. • Video games are extremely popular, with sales exceeding the movie industry. Mastering software animation tools, such as 3ds Max, will enable you to create characters and games. • Schools need computers! Teachers and students both use computers for marking doing quizzes, homework, research etc. • For Law, there is computer forensics, a specialty that analyzes computer systems with specific techniques to gather potential legal evidence (checking suspect’s search engines, pulling up videos, conversations etc) • Digital home: means to have an appropriate computer and digital devices that are all connected to a home network. o Media computer… its is the nerve center of any digital home, allowing you to interface with all the different digital devices you have connected to the net work. A PC based computer should be equipped with the current version of Microsoft Windows 7 or Windows Vista as its operating system. Windows media center is a part of Windows 7 and functions as a digital video recorder, a video player, and a music player . ! TV tuner: allows your computer to receive television channels from a cable connection and display them on your computer monitor. You can install more than one TV tuner on your computer, allowing you to receive multiple television channels at the same time. ! Blu-ray, DVD, and CD players and recorders : By allowing you to play all kinds of optical media, blu -ray and DVD/CD players make it easier to transfer your audio or video files. ! Network Adaptor: a device that is installed in your computer and allows it to communicate with other devices on a network. o A network: unless you are going to view digital and audio files only on your computer, you will need a network to transfer files easily to other devices, such as the TV, in your home. Wireless network has an advantage over wired network because you can relocate devices on a wireless network. Patients Stimulators: life-sized, computer-controlled mannequins that can speak, breathe, and blink (their eyes respond to external stimuli). They have a pulse and respond like humans to procedures such as administration and intravenous drugs. They serve as human substitutes w ithout the controversy of ethics. The Physiome Project is a global public domain effort in which bioengineers are creating realistic computer stimulators of all systems and features of the human anatomy. The current system models a theoretical human’s lungs however, researchers hope to, one day, use computers to stimulate specific person’s anatomical systems. This way, an exact copy of one’s body can be used to experiment different therapies on before using it on the actual person. This is still far down the road though and computer- literate medical professionals would be needed to make it happen. Surgeons are using computer -guided robots to perform surgery, as it is difficult for humans to make small, precise incisions. Medicine: • Researchers are experimenting with implantable chips to repair nerve damage and restore movement of sensation to parts of the body. • The MIT eyeball chip is a retinal implant that may restore at least partial vision to certain groups of legally blind patients. • The VeriChip is a rice-grain sized personal ID chip implanted under the skin which, when exposed to radio waves, shows the name, address and medical conditions of a person. This is helpful for sick patients such as those who suffer from Alzheimer’s disease as well as sec urity (credit card could not be used if ID was verified through the chip). The current version of these is nonimplanted chips used in hospitals. Nature: Tornado forecasting may be getting more accurate as National Severe Storms Lab and the National Center for Supercomputing Applications have partnered up. Three-dimensional scanners and imaging software can capture deta iled record of the current condition of ruins, something that archaeologists desperately need. The virtual re -creation of the ruins is so life -like that archaeologists can study the ruins on screen instead of at the site. Using the scans as well as satellite imagery, aerial photography and other data, scientist will be able to recreate missing portions of the ruins. Sports: Video recordings of athletes in action can be transferred into special motion -analysis software on a computer. Every little detail is taken into consideration by this so ftware and there is room for minor adjustments. An athlete can enhance his or her skills by watching and learning from these videos. For Olympic swimmers, software determines the way water flows around parts of the swimmer’s body when in motion. Coaches can use this information to experiment with small changes in the position of the swimmer so that drag and turbulence are reduced. Nanotechnology: Nanoscience involves the study of molecules and structures (called nanostructures) that range in size from 1 to 100 nanometers. It will provide numerous career paths and high -tech positions over the next several decades. Nano is one billionth of a meter. Nanostructures represent the smallest human -made structures that can be built. Right now, Nano science is limited to improvising existing products; such as enhancing fibers used in clothing with coatings so that they could repel stains, stop wrinkles etc. However, in the future, scientists hope to use nanostructures to build computing devices that will be too smal l to be seen by the naked eye. Psychology: Psychologists and computer scientists are working together to develop computer systems that respond to human affect and emotional expression, as well as enable computer systems to develop social and emotional skills. • Affective Computing is computing that relates to emotion or deliberately tries to influence emotion. • Emotional Social Prosthesis (ESP) is a project that is to be emerged by a group at the MIT Media Lab. The system is targeted at helping people with autism. Autistic individuals can have extremely high intelligence but do not easily sense nonverbal cues such as facial expressions and tone of voice. ESP is a wearable system that isolates movements and facial expressions of people, interprets what their mood and intention probably are, and communicates this information back to the user. • Another project at the media lab will help people who h ave difficulty maintaining focus on specific task. • Psychologists and computer scientists are also evolving to a more human appearance by making the robots be able to walk on two feet, climb stairs and even hug. Challenges Facing a Digital Society: • Since the tragic events of 9/11, surveillance in public areas has been introduced and increased to keep a look out for terrorists however, should this invasion of privacy for the public be allowed in order to make sure the country is secure? • There is the constant scare that someone may be watching you, as surveillance devices can be hard to spot (technology = smaller devices). One can possibly hack into your laptop webcam and watch your every move. \ • Many employees don’t know that employers have the right to mon itor email and network traffic on the systems used at work. Due to this, employers may be sending personal emails and going on websites that they do not want their employer to know about (new job search)… Should employers have the right to do this? • Although VeriChips are meant to benefit the public, there are major privacy issues to the idea. • There are many other privacy issues associated to the internet and technology. Chapter 2- Looking at Computers: Understanding the Parts • A computer is a data processing device that performs four major functions: 1. It gathers data, or allows users to input data. 2. It processes that data into information. 3. It outputs data and information. 4. It stores data and information. • Data is a representation of a fact, a figure, or an idea. For example, the number 7135553297 and the names Zoe and Richardson are pieces of data. • Information is data that has been organized or presented in a meaningful fashion. When your computer provides you with a contact listing that indicates Zoe Richardson can be reach by phone at (713) 555-3297, then the previous data suddenly becomes useful - the data becomes information. • Binary language consists of just two digits: 0 and 1. Each 0 and 1 is a binary digit, or bit for short. Eight binary digits (or bits) combine to create one byte. • In computers, each letter of the alphabet, each number, and each special character consists of a unique combination of eight bits, or a string of eight 0s and 1s. So, for examp le, in binary (computer) language, the letter K is represented as 01001011. • Bits and bytes not only are used as the language that tells the computer what to do but also are what the computer uses to represent the data and information that it inputs and out puts. These files and applications can be quite large, containing thousands or millions of bytes . • How much is a byte? Name Abbreviation Number of Bytes Relative Size Byte B 1 byte Can hold one character of data Kilobyte KB 1,024 bytes (2^10 Can hold 1,024 characters or about half of a byte) double-spaced typewritten page. Megabyte MB 1,048,576 bytes Can hold approximately 768 pages of typed (2^20 bytes) text. Gigabyte GB 1,073,741,824 bytes Approximately 786,432 pages of text; 500 (2^30 bytes) sheets of paper is approximately 2 inches, so this represents a stack of paper 262 feet high. Terabyte TB 1,099,511,627,776 This represents a stack of typewritten pages bytes (2^40 bytes) almost 51 miles high Petabyte PB 1,125,899,906,842, The stack of pages is now 52,000 miles 62 bytes (2^50 high, or approximately one-fourth the bytes) distance from the Earth to the moon. Exabyte EB 1,152,921,504,606, The stack of pages is now 52 million miles 846,976 bytes high, or just about twice the dista nce (2^60 bytes) between the Earth and Venus. Zettabyte ZB 1,180,591,620,717, The stack of pages is now 52 billion miles 411,303,424 bytes high. That’s some 20 times the distance (2^70 bytes) between the Earth and Pluto. • Hardware is “any part of the computer you can physically touch.” However, a computer needs more than just hardware to work: it also needs some form of software (computer programs). • Software is the set of computer programs that enables the hardware to perform diffe rent tasks. There are two broad categories of software: application software and system software. o Application Software is the set of programs you use on a computer to help you carry out tasks such as writing out a research paper. o System Software is the set of programs that enables your computer’s hardware devices and application software to work together. The most common type of system software is the operating system (OS)- The program that controls the way in which your computer system functions. • A notebook computer (or laptop computer) is a portable computer that is powered by batteries (or a handy electrical outlet) and has a keyboard, a monitor, and other devices integrated into a single compact case. • A netbook is a small, lightweight notebook computer that is generally 7 to 10 inches wide and has a longer battery life than a notebook computer. • A tablet pc is similar to a notebook but features a touch sensitive screen that can swivel and fold flat. Users input data and commands on a tablet P C via a special pen called a stylus or with their fingers. • A desktop computer is intended for use at a single location, and therefore, is stationary. Desktop computers consist of a separate case that houses the main components of the computer plus peripheral devices. • A peripheral device is a component, such as a monitor or keyboard, that is connected to the computer. • An all-in-one computer such as the Apple iMac One houses not just the computer’s processor and memory but also its monitor. • Other types of computers include: o A mainframe is a large, expensive computer that supports hundreds of users simultaneously o A supercomputer is a specially designed computer tat can perform complex calculations extremely rapidly. o An embedded computer is a specially designed computer chip that resides in another device, such as your car or the electronic thermostat in your home. o The main difference between a supercomputer and a mainframe is that supercomputers are designed o execute a few programs as quickly as possible, whereas mainframes are designed to handle many programs running at the same time but at a slower place • An input device enables you to enter data (text, images, and sounds) and instructions (user responses and commands) into the computer. The most common in put devices are the keyboard and the mouse. • A keyboard is used to enter typed data and commands, and a mouse is used to enter user responses and commands. • QWERTY keyboard layout gets its name from the first six letters in the top -left row of alphabetic keys on the keyboard and is the standard English -language keyboard layout. It was originally designed for typewriters and was meant to slow typists down and prevent typewriter keys from jamming. • The Dvorak keyboard is an alternative keyboard layout that puts the most commonly used letters in the English language on “home keys,” which are the keys in the middle row of the keyboard. The design reduces the distance your fingers travel for most keystrokes, increasing typing speed. • Bluetooth technology, which is a wireless transmission standard that facilitates the connection of electronic computing devices such as cell phones, smartphones, and computers to peripheral devices such as keyboards and headsets. • Knowing how to use these special keys will help you im prove your efficiency: (See Figure 2.9 in text) o The numeric keypad allows you to enter numbers quickly. o Function keys act as shortcut keys you press to perform special tasks. They are sometimes referred to as the “F” keys. Each software application has its own set of tasks assigned to various function keys. o The control (Ctrl) key is used in combination with other keys to perform shortcuts and special tasks. Eg. Holding down control while pressing the B key adds bold formatting. o The Alt key works with other keys to execute additional shortcuts and special tasks(Mac are different). o The windows key is specific to the Windows operating system, it is used alone, it opens the start menu, although you use it most often in combination with other keys to perform shortcuts. o Cursor control keys. o Toggle and other keys. o Internet controls o Multimedia controls Keystroke Shortcuts Text Formatting File Management Cut/Copy/Paste Windows Controls CTRL+B Applies or CTRL+O Opens the CTRL+X Cuts Alt+F4 Closes the removes bold formatting Open dialog box (removes) selected text current window to selected text from document and stores in Clipboard CTRL+I Applies (or CTRL+N Opens a new CTRL+C Copies Windows Key+Tab removes) italic document selected text to Cycles through open formatting to selected Clipboard programs using Flip 3-D text CTRL+U Applies (or CTRL+S Saves a CTRL+V Pastes Windows Key+L removes) underlining to document selected text (previously Locks the computer selected text cut or copied) from Clipboard CTRL+P Opens the Windows Key+F Print dialog box Opens the Search (Find Files) dialog box • Wireless keyboards are powered by batteries. They send data to the computer using a form of wireless technology that uses radio frequency (RF). RF keyboards used on home computers can be placed as far as 6 feet to 30 feet from the computer, depending on th eir quality. • The most familiar mouse is called the optical mouse it uses an internal sensor or laser to detect the mouse’s movement. The sensor sends signals to the computer, telling it where to move the pointer on the screen. They are preferable to most mice because they have fewer moving parts, which lessens the chances that it will interfere with the mechanisms or that parts will break down. • A trackball mouse has the rollerball on top or on the side of the mouse, and you move the ball with your fingers, allowing the mouse to remain stationary. It’s considered better for the wrist than an optical mouse. • Most notebooks do not have a mouse, instead they have an integrated pointing device such as a touch pad, a small, touch sensitive area at the base of the keyboard. Other notebooks incorporate a track point device, a small, joystick-like nub that allows you to move the cursor with the tip of your finger. • Wireless mice are similar to wireless keyboards in tha t they use batteries and send data to the computer by radio frequency or Bluetooth technologies. If you have an RF wireless keyboard, then your RF wireless mouse and keyboard usually can share the same RF receiver . Wireless mice for notebooks have their own receivers that often clip into the bottom of the mouse for easy storage when not in use. • Magic Mouse, the first multitouch wireless mouse. The top surface of the mouse, which is virtually the mouse itself, is the button. Use your finger to scroll in any direction, swipe your finger across the mouse to move through Web pages, and tap on the mouse to click and double - click. • MoGo Mouse are designed for portability and fit into a peripheral slot on the side of a notebook, which serves to store the mouse, pro tect it, and charge its batteries all at the same time. It uses Bluetooth technology to transmit data to the notebook. • Mouse models provide features such as the following: o Magnifier: enhance viewing of hard -to-read images o Customizable buttons: provide extr a buttons to perform the functions that you use most often o Web search: allows you to quickly highlight a word or phrase and then press the search button o File storage: Includes a wireless USB receiver that contains flash memory to store or back up your files • A touch screen is a display screen that responds to commands initiated by a touch with a finger or a stylus. • Digital cameras, camcorders, and cell phones are common devices for capturing pictures and video, and all of them are considered input devices. • A webcam is a small camera that sits on top of a computer monitor or is built into a notebook computer. They are used mostly for transferring live video directly to a computer. • Inputting sound to your computer requires equipping it with a microphone or mic, a device that allows you to capture sounds waves and transfer them to digital format on your computer. • Desktop microphones, which have an attached base that allows them to sit on a flat surface, are convenient for recording podcasts or in other situat ions in which you might need your hands to be free. • Unidirectional microphones pick up sound from only one direction. These are best used for recording podcasts with a single voice or making phone calls over the Internet. • Omni directional microphones pick up sounds from all directions at once. These mics are best for recording more than one voice, such as during a conference call. • Clip-on microphones (also called lavalier microphones) are useful in environments such as presentations, where you need to keep your hands free. • Close-talk microphones, which are usually attached to a headset, facilitate using speech - recognition software, videoconferencing, or making telephone calls. • Maltron keyboard is a type of keyboard designed for individuals who can only use o ne hand. • An output device enables you to send processed data out of your computer in the form of text, pictures (graphics), sounds (audio), or video. One common output device is a monitor or display screen, which displays text, graphics and video as soft c opies. Another common output device is the printer, which creates hard copies of text and graphics. Speakers and earphones (or earbuds) are the output devices for sound. • The most common type of monitor is a liquid crystal display (LCD) also called a flat-panel monitor, is light and energy efficient. LCD monitors have replaced the cathode ray tube (CRT) monitor. CRT monitors are difficult to find or buy because they have become legacy technology or computing devices or peripherals that use techniques, parts and methods from an earlier time that are no longer popular. • Monitor screens are grids made up of millions of tiny dots, each of which is calledpixel. Each pixel is actually comprised of three subpixels of red, blue, and green, and some newer TVs on th e market have added a fourth color: yellow • The aspect ratio is the width-to-height proportion of a monitor. • The screen resolution, or the clearness or sharpness of the image, reflects the number of pixels on the screen • Other factors to consider when judgi ng the quality of an LCD monitor: o Contrast ratio: Measure of the difference in light intensity between the brightest white and the darkest black that the monitor can produce. o Viewing angle: Measured in degrees, tells how far you can move to the side of the monitor before the image quality degrades to unacceptable levels. o Brightness: Measured as candelas per square meter (cd/m2) or nits, brightness is a measure of the greatest amount of light showing when the monitor is displaying pure white. o Response time: This is the measurement (in milliseconds) of the time it takes for a pixel to change color. • A projector, a device that can project images from your computer onto a wall or viewing screen. • Inkjet and laser printers are both considered nonimpact printers. A nonimpact printer sprays ink or uses laser beams to transfer marks onto the paper. • An impact printer has tiny hammer- like keys that strike the paper through an inked ribbon, making marks on the paper. • An inkjet printer is the standard type of printer found in most homes. They are affordable and produce high-quality color printouts quickly and quietly. They work by spraying tiny drops of ink onto paper and are great for printing black -and-white text as well as color images. • A laser printer uses laser beams and static electricity to deliver toner onto the correct areas of the page. Heat is used to fuse the toner to the page, making the image permanent. • Portable printers are often compact enough to fit in a briefcase, are lightweight, and sometimes run on battery power instead of AC power. • Wireless printers allow several people to print to the same printer from different places. There are two different types of wireless printers: WiFi and Bluetooth. WiFi sends the data more quickly than Bluetooth. • An all-in-one printer is a device that combines the functions of a printer, scanner, copier, and fax into one machine. • A plotter is another type of printer. Plotters produce oversize pictures that require the drawing of precise and continuous lines, such as maps, de tailed images and architectural plans. • A thermal printer is another kind of specialty printer. They work either by melting wax -based ink onto ordinary paper (a process called thermal wax transfer printing), or by burning dots onto specially coated paper (a process called direct thermal printing). They are used in stores to print receipts and in airports for electronic ticketing, among other places. • How Inkjet printers work: o Step 1: Once the printer receives t he command to print, electrical pulses flow through thin resistors in the print head to heat the ink. o Step 2: The heated ink forms a bubble. The bubble continues to expand until it is forced out of the nozzle. o Step 3: The ink drops onto the paper. o Step 4: As the ink leaves the cartridge, the chamber begins to cool and contract, creating a vacuum to draw in the ink for the process to begin again. • A speaker is an output device for sound. • A surround-sound speaker is a system of speakers and audio processing that envelops the listener in a full 360-degree field of sound. • The motherboard is the main circuit board that contains the central electronic components of the computer, including the computer’s processor (its brain), its memory, and the many circuit boar ds that help the computer function. The motherboard on a desktop is located inside the system unit, the metal or plastic case that also houses the power source and all the storage devices (CD/DVD drive and hard drive). With a notebook computer, the system unit is combined with the monitor ad the keyboard into a single package. • The motherboard is the main circuit board that contains the set of chips that powers the system, including the central processing unit (CPU). Also houses ROM, RAM, and cache, the chip s that provide the short-term memory for the computer. The motherboard also includes slots for expansion cards (or adapter cards), which are circuit boards that provide additional functionality. • A sound card provides a connection for the speakers and micr ophone, whereas a video card provides a connection for the monitor. • The modem card, which provides the computer with a connection to the Internet via a traditional phone line, and a network interface card (NIC), which enables your computer to connect with other computers or to a cable modem to facilitate a high -speed Internet connection. • Random access memory (RAM) is the place in a computer where the programs and data the computer is currently using are stored. It’s much faster to read from and write to t han the hard drive and other forms of storage. It’s a series of small cards (called memory cards or memory modules) plugged into slots on the motherboard. RAM is a temporary or volatile storage location. Think of RAM as the computer’s temporary memory and the hard drive as permanent memory. • Read-only memory (ROM) holds all the instructions the computer needs to start up when the computer is powered on. The instructions stored in ROM are permanent, making ROM a non - volatile storage location, which means the data is not erased when the power is turned off. • The central processing unit is sometimes referred to as the “brains” of the computer because it controls all the functions performed by the computer’s other components and processes all the commands issued to it by software instructions. • Processor speed is measured in units of hertz (Hz). Hertz means “machine cycles per second.” A machine cycle is the process of the CPU getting the data or instructions from RAM and decoding the instructions into something the computer can understand. • Older machines ran at speeds measured in megahertz (MHz), or millions of machine cycles per second, whereas current systems run at speeds measured in gigahertz (GHz), or billions of machine cycles per second. • CPU performance is also affected by other factors like the number of cores, or processing paths, a processor has. Processors have been designed so that they can have two, four, and even eight different paths, allowing them to process more than one instruction at a time. • Each permanent storage device is located in your desktop or notebook computer in a space called a drive bay. There are two kinds of drive bays - internal and external: o Internal drive bays cannot be seen or accessed from outside the system unit. Internal hard drive usually holds all permanently stored programs and data. o External drive bays can be seen and accessed from outside the system unit. External drive bays house CD and DVD drives. • Zip disk drive resembles a floppy disk drive but has a slightly wider open ing. It works just like standard floppy disks but can carry much more data (up to 750 MB) • The hard drive is your computer’s primary device for permanent storage of software and documents. The hard drive is a non-volatile storage device, meaning it holds th e data and instructions your computer needs permanently, even after the computer is turned off. Capacities of as much as 3.5 terabyte (TB), can hold more data than would fit in the books in a school’s library. • An#external(hard(drive(is#essentially#like#and#internal#hard#drive,#however,#it#has#been# made#portable#by#making#it#small#and#lightweight#and#enclosing#it#in#a#protective#case.#It#is# often#used#to#back#up#data#that#is#contained#on#an#internal#hard#drive#in#case#a#problem# develops#with#the#internal#har d#drive#and#data#needs#to#be#recovered. # • Optical(drives(can#read#from#and#maybe#even#write#to#CDs,#DVDs,#or#Blue @ray#disc#(BD)## • A#flash(drive,#sometimes#referred#to#as#a#jump(drive,(USB(drive,(or(thumb(drive,#is#a#way# of#storing#portable#data.#Flash#drives# plug#into#USB#ports.# • Flash(memory(cards#let#you#transfer#digital#data#between#your#computer#and#devices#such# as#digital#cameras#and#devices#such#as#digital#cameras,#PDAs,#smartphones,#video#cameras,# and#printers.# • A#solid(state(drive((SSD)(does#not#have#any#spinning#platters#or#motors,#so#they#are#more# efficient,#run#with#no#noise,#emit#very#little#heat,#and#require#very#little#power. # • A#port(is#a#place#through#which#a#peripheral#device#attaches#to#the#computer#so#that#data#can# be#exchanged#between#it#and#the #operating#system.# • A#universal(serial(bus((USB)(port( is#now#the#most#common#port#type#used#to#connect#input# and#out#put#devices#to#the#computer.#USB#2.0#ports#are#the#current#standard#and#transfer# data#at#480#megabits#per#second.# # • A#connectivity(port(can#give#you#access#to#networks#and#the#internet#or#enable#your# computer#to#function#as#a#fax#machine.# # • Ethernet(ports(transfer#data#at#speeds#up#to#100#Mbps.#You#can#use#and#Ethernet#port#to# connect#your#computer#to#a#digital#subscriber#line#(DSL)#or#cabl e#modem,#or#a#network.# • A#modem(port#uses#a#traditional#telephone#signal#to#connect#o#the#Internet#over#a#phone# line.# • HighCdefinition(multimedia(interface((HDMI),( a#compact#[email protected]#interface#that# carries#both#[email protected]#video#and#uncompressed#digit al#audio#on#one#cable.# • The#power(supply,#which#is#housed#inside#the#system#unit,#transforms#the#wall#voltage#to# the#voltages#required#by#computer#chips. # • Hibernate(is#another#[email protected]#mode#that#stores#your#data#in#memory#and#saves#it#to# your#computer’s#hard#drive.#The#big#advantage#is#that#if#there#is#a#power#failure#while#your# computer#is#conserving#power,#your#information#is#protected#from#loss,#because#it#is#saved# on#the#hard#drive.# • Restarting#the#system#while#it’s#powered#on#is#called#a# warm(boot.# • Ergonomics(is#defined#as#“an#applied#science#concerned#with#designing#and#arranging# things#people#use#so#that#the#people#and#things#interact#most#efficiently#and#safely.#It#refers# to#how#you#set#up#your#computer#and#other#equipment#to#minimize#your#risk#of#i njury#or# discomfort.# Chapter 3 Using the Internet The Internet The Internet is a network of networks that is the largest computer network in the world, connecting millions of computers around the world. The internet and Web is used to shop, research, comm unicate, and entertain ourselves. The internet was invented by 2 men names Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn. Communicating through the internet E-mail (Electronic mail) is a written message that is sent and received over the internet. E-mail clients such as Microsoft Outlook are software programs running on your computer that access your internet service providers (ISP’s) server. Instant Messaging (IM) services are programs that enable you to communicate in real time with others who are online. Chat Room is a form of synchronous communication in which online conversations occurs in real time and is visible to everyone in the chat room. Web 2.0 Technologies Web 2.0 Tools and web-based services that emphasize online collaboration and sharing among users. Blog is a personal log or journal posted on the web. They are simple to create, manage and read. Video Blog is a personal journal that uses video as the primary content. It can also contain text, images and audio Wikis is a type of web site that allows users to change its content by adding, removing, or editing the content. Podcast is a clip of audio or video content that is broadcast over the internet using compressed audio and video files such as MP3`s and MP4`s. Podcast use RSS technology. You can find podc ast on itunes, RSS (Really Simple Syndication) is an XML-based format that facilitates the delivery of frequent content updates on web pages. Webcast is the broadcast of audio or video content over the internet. Webcast are m ostly live. Social Networking is a means by which people use the internet to communicate and share information among their immediate friends and meet and connect with others through common interests, experience and friends. Examples are Facebook, MySpace, LinkedIn, etc. Web Entertainment Multimedia is anything that involves one or more forms od media in addition to text such as graphics, audio, and video clips. Sometimes you need a special software program called a plug -in or player to view and hear multimedia files. Plug-ins is often installed in new computers or are offered free of charge at manufactures` websites Plug-ins a small software program that `plug -ins` to a web browser to enable a specific function-for example, to view and hear certain multime dia files on the web. Conducting Business over the Internet E-commerce is the process of conducting business online, such as through advertising and selling products. Business-to-Consumer (B2C) exchanges that take place between businesses and consumers - such as the purchases that consumer make at online stores. Business-to-Business (B2B) consists of business buying and selling goods and services to other businesses. Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C) portion of e-commerce consists of consumers selling to each ot her through online auction and exchange sites such as eBay, Kijiji, Craiglist Accessing the Web Web Browser is software installed on your computer system that allows you to locate, view and navigate the Web. Examples of web browsers are Firefox, Safari, G oogle Chrome Getting Around the Web URL (Uniform Resource Locator) Website unique address such as Domain Name Protocol Top-level Path or subdirectory Domain Protocol Most URLs begin with https, which is short for hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP). HTTP is the protocol that allows files to be transferred from a computer that hosts the Website you are requesting so that you can see the web site on your computer by usin g a browser. Domain Name identifies the site’s host. Top level Domain is the suffix in the domain name after the dot such as .com or .ca Path or Subdirectory is the information after the slash. Hyperlinks One unique aspect of the Web is that you can jump from place to place by clicking on specially formatted piece of text or images. Breadcrumb lists a list of pages within a Web site you’ve visited. Searching the Web Effectively Search Engine is a set of programs that searches the Web using specific keyw ords you wish to query and then returns a list of the Web sites on which those keywords are found. It can be used to search for images, podcasts, and video in addition to traditional text -based Web content. Subject Directory is a structured outline of Web sites organized by topic and subtopic. Metasearch engines search other search engines Search engines have three parts 1. Spider constantly collects data on the web, following links in the websites and reading webpages. 2. Indexer program, organizes the data into a large database. 3. Search engine software searches the indexed data, pulling out relevant information according to your search. The Internet and How it Works A computer connected to the internet acts in one of two ways Client computer that asks for data Server a computer that receives the request and returns the data to the client Connecting to the Internet Dial-up Connection a connection to the internet using a standard telephone line Broadband often referred to as “high-speed Internet”, refers to a type of connection that offers a faster means to connect to the internet. Max data transmission rate of 256 Kbps or greater. Max transmission speed of 56 Kbps. Types of broadband Digital Subscriber L ine (DSL) which uses a standard phone line to connect your computer to the internet Cable which uses your television’s cable service provider to connect to the internet. Fiber-optic Service (FiOS) which uses plastic or glass cables to transfer data at the speed of light has just recently become available as a broadband service to the home. Satellite is a connection option for those who do not have access to faster broadband technologies. Wi-Fi allows users to connect to the internet wirelessly The Future of the Internet The internet of the future will have faster connections and will be able to provide additional services as a result of projects such as the large-scale networking program and Internet2. The internet will become more integrated into our daily lives as Internet-enabled appliances and household systems provide more remote - control features for our home. Chapter 4 Summary Application software: Programs that let you work and play The Nuts and Bolts of software Software – a set of instructions that tells the co mputer what to do. Program – (also called instruction set) allows us to use the computer even if we don’t have special computer skills. Two Basic types of software Application Software: software you use to do tasks at home, work, or school. Examples are editing photos and sending e-mail. System software: such as Windows and Mac OS X, which help run the computer and regulate instructions between the application software and the hard drive. Examples are operating system and utility programs. Productivity software for Home and Office Productivity software – includes programs that help you do different tasks at home, school, or work. Examples are Microsoft word and Personal information manager programs (PIM). Word Processing software - considered best software to use to make general documents - Easily make corrections, and many templates available. - Examples are Microsoft word and Corel WordPerfect Any alternatives? Open source software – program code that is publicly available and has very few limitations. Proprietary Software – not free or open, the code can be copied, distributed or changed without any permission of copyright. Web-based applications can be accessed from any computer that has internet connection. Limitation is that they do not have formal support. How to control the way your documents look word processing software allows for easy change to documents. Web based applications can do this also, but they have their limitations. What special tools do word processing programs have? -spell-check, search-and-replace tool, the general and known ones, translate sentences. Spreadsheet software Spreadsheet software – such as Microsoft Excel or Calc lets you do calculations and analyses easily. - Can use for budgets, expenses, etc. How do I use spreadsheet software? - it is a grid made up of columns or rows forming single boxes called cells. Can enter: text, values, formulas, and functions. Advantages: ability to recalculate all functions and formulas automatically. What-if analysis – you can immediately see different options and the effect they have on your total in the same analysis. Graphs and Charts - various available such as column charts, pie charts, 3 -D effects. - stock charts for investment analysis and stock charts for statist ical analysis - sparklines fit into one cell. Other uses - compute output voltage at a point in an electrical circuit, can sort, filter and group data. Presentation Software - such as PowerPoint, Impress, or Zoho Show. - make presentations, add videos, change colour, add effects, etc. How do I create a presentation? - using basic features, arrange text, pictures, etc. - variety of layouts, themes, animation effects Database Software - Oracle, MySQL, Microsoft Access allow to store and o rganize data. - Organized into fields, records, and tables. Uses are FedEx, UPS, etc – keep track of package. Note-taking software - Microsoft one note – can organize notes and link to Wiki system so that students can quickly link from one note to another document outside of OneNote. Free note-taking softwares –, Personal Information Manager (PIM) Software Microsoft Outlook, Chandler. – replace management tools such as calendar, notepad, address book. Some contain email features, can organize them into folders, and coordinate them. Web-based PIM programs are available – such as Yahoo and Google who allow you to make calendars and contacts Productivity Software Functions – tools to help you increase efficiency Wizard – systematic guide that walks you through steps to reach your task. Wizard asks questions and then helps you complete that part of the task. Example – installing a software Template – predesigned form, providing a basic structure of a document, spreadshee t, and presentation. Example – resume template Macro – small program that groups a series of commands that they will run as a single command. Example, a teacher may write a macro to sort test scores from highest to lowest Integrated Software Applications - is a single software program that includes the most commonly used tolls of many productivity softwares into one however they do not include the more complex features. - Example is Microsoft Works. Why use this instead of actual software? - good if you don’t need the complex features, less expensive, provides templates for frequently developed documents (resume, etc). Software Suits – group of software programs that have been bundled as a package. You can buy these for productivity, virus protection, and graphics. Primary developers are Microsoft, Apple, and Corel. - Most productivity software suites have similar basic components such as word processing, spreadsheets, presentation and PIM software. Some may contain database and estop publishing software. Research your options before buying a bundle as per your needs. Advantages - cheaper, share common features (toolbars, themes, menus), easier to import documents such as from excel to word or to access. Personal Financial Software Tax preparations software such as Intuit TurboTax help you prepare state and federal taxes. Both contain a set of tax forms and videos tohelp you fill in the forms. TurboTax is also able to check for audit alerts, file your taxes online, and then plan and manage your finances. Tax code changes every year so you have to buy an updates version each year. Financial planning software helps manage daily finances. Intuit Quicken and Microsoft Money are examples. These have online billing and can print cheques. Records all transactions m and can set up a budget. Web-based programs like analyze your spending and offer advice on how to spend your money. You can monitor and change your information from any computer privately and securely. Some applications also coordinate with tax applications so that it helps you fill in your tax forms as well as go through your tax related income and expenses. Media Software for Home Multimedia software – image, video, and audio editing software, animation software, and other software needed to make computer games, animations, and movies. Digital Image Editing Software Once the image is converted to digital form, you can use Google Picasa or Microsoft Photo Story to add audio to make a slide show of your images. You can edit using image editi ng software which has certain basic features like red eye removal, cropping, sharpness, brightness, etc. There are more advanced applications such as Photoshop which are fully featured in terms of photo editing. They have features like layering images, mak ing images that designers use. However, they can also be used by nonprofessional home users. Digital Audio Software A lot of novels, newspapers, radio shows can be bought from podcasting – the distribution of audio files such as radio shows and music videos MAGIX Music Maker or Apple Garage Band , you can compose your own songs with virtual instruments, voice recorders, etc. Why are MP3 files so popular? - Short for MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3, is a type of audio compression format that reduces the file size so that they will take less space on your device. Other programs have many capabilities: MP3 recording, CD ripping, CD burning, Encoding and decoding and format conversion. Audio editing software includes tools that can help you edit audio file s. Examples are Digital Video Editing Software - Adobe Premiere Pro has complex features , has widest range of video editing, but it is expensive. - Microsoft Live Movie Maker helps with video editing and is a free download. Videos come in different formats such as flash video, MPEG -1, 2, and 4, VCD, etc. Normally you watch videos in MP4 form which compresses the audio and video content to a smaller size. Apple created other MP4 extensions to identify specific content such as .m4b (audio book and podcast) and .m4r (ringtone files for iPhone). Media management software How to manage media on your system Windows Media Player and iTunes helps to organize, sort, search music. You can burn these songs to a cd or transfer to a devi ce. There are a lot of photo sharing sites such as is one of the best photo management and photo sharing applications. Google Picasa also allows to store and share photos with friends and family. Software Fun for Home Entertainment software is designed to provide users with fun. Virtual reality programs turn artificial environments into a realistic experience. Gaming software - system has to have enough processing power, memory (RAM), hard drive capacity. Some games might require a controller. - The entertainment software rating board (ESRB) is a self -regulatory body made in 1994 which helps customers choose the computer and video games that is right for their families. They also come up with the rating symbol for games. - You can create your own video games through Adobe Flash , RPG Maker VX. Some websites help you make a game without any programming. ( Educational Software Many softwares such as MCAT Prep, cooking, typing, languages, work -outs, etc. Simulation programs allow users to experience or control the software as it were the actual software or an actual event. Examples are military flight training, surgical instrument training. These courses can be taken online if you have the compatible web browser. Many o f these courses are run through course management software such as Blackboard, Moodle, and Angel. Drawing software (illustration software) allows you to make 2 -d, line based drawings. Tools are available such as pencils, pens, and paintbrushes, geometric shapes, etc. Different types of drawing software – Adobe illustrator has tools that are used by professionals. (human muscles, and special sketches) - Warping tool allows to bend, stretch, and twist portions. Microsoft Visio helps with building planning such as maps, block diagrams, etc. Home Business Software Accounting software helps manage small business owners finances. Tools for tracking accounts, inventory management, payroll, and billing tools. Intuit QuickBooks is an example. Desktop publishing software (DTP) helps you add pictures to your documents in a creative way. Examples are QuarkXpress and Adobe InDesign which allow for complex features. - Tools are arranging text in different columns, shapes, patterns, import documents, and manipulate the pictures. Web-page authoring software allows you to make websites without having HTML knowledge or using the HTML code. - Tools are templates, wizards, and reference materials. Microsoft Expression Web is an example. If you just want a simple web page and not a separate authoring program, then Microsoft Applications also let you publish your document online. Palo Alto Software’s Business Plan Pro helps users make strategic and development plans for business and marketing needs. Project Management softwa re (Microsoft Project) helps create scheduling charts. Customer Relationship management Software (CRM) stores sales and client contact info in one central database. Enterprise resource planning software (ERP) helps a business coordinate multiple departme nts of a business in terms of billing, production, inventory management , etc. Mapping programs such as DeLorme Street Atlas USA is an example that helps employees who have to travel frequently. Online mapping programs are Google Maps, MapQuest, etc but they require internet connection. Many companies use GIS (geographic information system) to help with managing, analyzing, and displaying data, mostly in a map or spatial form. For companies who have an online store, they can use IBM’S WebSphere and ProS tores. These products offer web site creation, hosting services, and credit card processing. Vertical market software – designed for specific industry. For example, the construction industry uses Sage Master Builder. Computer-aided design (CAD) programs are a form of 3D modelling that engineers use to create automated designs, technical drawings, and model visualizations. - Helps with costly building errors - Works in coordination with GPS devices to see where fiber -optic networks can be places - Many graphics, animation, use applications from Autodesk t create 3D models with complex textures lighting models. Programs offer help right in the application you are using. Some applications allow you to talk to help and support people online. Integrated help means you can just search your question without having to go through manuals. For training and help learning, the product’s developer may offer online tutorials. has a lot of helpful videos for various appli cations. Buying Software - When you buy software, you do not own it, you only have the license to be the only user for that software - Software license is an agreement between the user and the company. It outlines the rules and actions that could violate the license to use the software. - You mostly buy a single license but they can come in multiuser packages as well. - Concurrent licenses limit the number of user accesing the software at any given time - Open source software has access to the program’s code so any one can use it and distribute it. A free software license is required and grants the user the right to modify and distribute the software. (called copyleft) Pre-Installed Software - Every computer comes with an operating system, as well as some form of appl ication software (such as Microsoft Works) - Usually, there is no storage problem with pre -installed software. - Other softwares, such as virus protection, comes with a trial version andonce over but still installed, you have to buy the license and reinstate the software. If you don’t, it stays there useless, and this is called bloatware. The best thing to do is delete the programs. - Normally, computer manufacturers let you delete or choose which software you want pre -installed on your computer. - Most manufactures do not gve you a restore disc, so if your computer crashes, it is hard to get your pre installed software back. So, the first thing you should do, is create a restore disc. Web-based applications - Mostly, software has to be bought and installed on yo ur computer - Software as a Service (SaaS) allows you to buy the software online and have it installed all online. These are refered to as web based applications - Some web based applications available are Microsoft Office Web Apps (same as word, excel, etc, but with fewer options) - Google Docs is also a web based suite of productivity software. - As long as you have a web browser, you can access your files which are stored online. - Even though they are not as complex with their features, you can change the docu ment formats and export them. You can invite others to share your work and work on it in real time. - Most web based apps are free but some like TurboTax , you have to buy. Discounted software - Available for students and educators because they need certain softwares for a short amount of time. Campus bookstores, etc, have such discounts. - You can buy used software online but make sure it is a legal copy. - You can buy software directly on the inte rnet however if it is possible, as for a CD or DVD in case you have problems with installation or your computer crashes. Freeware and Shareware Freeware- any copyrighted software that you can use for free (screen savers, games, etc) Some softwares have a beta version, which is when an application is under development but it is tested by users for bugs, errors, and their opinion on the software. Shareware is software distributed free but with conditions. Such as a limited time. After a while, the software will not work (after free trial period). There are risks assoiated with freeware, shareware, and beta versions, so you need to be careful. You can install a restore point on your system in case your computer does crash. Software Versions and system req uirements - Software is updated and repaired periodically and that’s why there are different versions of software - Theres no rush to get the latest version of the software, but it depends on the usage of the software - Normally, you can use and see the files created by different versions of the same software but sometimes, older versions cannot recognize the document created by the newer version. - Every software has system requirements so you need to check those befoe you buy the software Installing, Uninstalling, and Starting software - When you buy software, it comes with a CD or DVD which opens up an installation wizrd which helps you install the software. - If you buy a software online, it will come in a compressed folder which will automatically decompress and start the installation. You can decide where you want to save the file. - If the installation doesn’t begin right away, find the file (so remember the location! ) and click on the .exe extention. This the application whereas the rest are data or help f iles. - A full installation will copy all the files and programs from the distribution disc to the computer’s hard drive where as a custom installation, you can decide which files you want on your system. - When you delete a file, you aren’t removing it from must uninstall it. - The best way to start an application is to click on the icon in the All programs. - You can put the icon in your taskbar as well as on your desktop if it is easier for you. See pages 196-197 for chapter summary. Chapter 5- Using System Software: The Operating System, Utility Programs, and File Management What software is included in system software? System software is the set of software programs the helps run the computer coordinates instructions between application software and hardware devices. It consists of the operating system, and utility programs. The OS controls how your computer system functions. Utility programs are programs that perform general housekeeping tasks for the computer, such as system ma intenance and file compression. What are the different kinds of operating systems? Operating systems can be classified into 4 categories. Real -time operating systems (RTOs) require no user intervention. They are designed for systems with a specific pu rpose and response time. Smartphones have their own specific operating systems, the latest of which allow the user to multitask. Current operating systems for desktops, notebooks, and netbooks have multitasking capabilities, as well as networking capabilities. What are the most common operating sysems? Microsoft Windows is the most populare OS. It has evolved into a powerful multiuser operating system. The most recent releas is Windows 7. Another popular OS is the Mac OS, which is designed to work o n Apple computers. Apple’s most recent release, Mac OS X Snow Leopard, is based on the UNIX operating system. There are various versions of the UNIX on the market, although UNIX is most often used on networks. Linux is an open source OX based on UNIX an d designed primarily for use on personal computers, although it is often found as the operating system on servers. How does the operating system provide a means for users to interact with the computer? The operating system provides a user interface that enables users to interact with the computer. Most Oss today us a geographical interface (GUI). Unlike the command menu -driven interfaces used earlier, GUIs display graphics and use the point and click technology of the mouse and cursor, making the OS mo re user friendly. Common features of GUIs include windows, menus, and icons. How does the operating system help manage resources such as the processor, memory, storage, hardware, and peripheral devices? When the OS allows you to perform more than one t ask at a time, it is multitasking. To provide for seamless multitasking, the OS controls the timing of events the processor works on. As the OS coordinates the activities of the processor, it uses RAM as a temporary storage area for instructions and data the processor needs. The OS is therefore responsible for coordinating the space allocations in RAM to ensure that there is enough space for the waiting instructions and data. If there isn’t sufficient space in RAM for all the data and instructions, then the OS allocates the least necessary files to temporary storage on the hard drive, called virtual memory . The OS manages storage by providing a file-management system that keeps track of the names and locations of files and programs. Programs called device drivers facilitate communication between devices attached to the computer and the OS. Device drivers translate the specialized commands of devices to commands that the OS can understand and vice versa, enabling the OS to communicate with every device in the computer system. Device drivers for common devices are included in the OS software, whereas other devices come with a device driver that you must install or download off the Web. How does the operating system interact with application software? All software applications need to interact with the CPU. For programs to work with the CPU, they must contain code that the CPU recognizes. Rather than having the same blocks of code appear in each application, the OS includes the blocks of code to which software applications refer. These blocks of code are called application programming interfaces (APIs) How does the operating system help the computer stat up? When you start your computer, it runs through a special process called the boot process. The boot process consists of 4 basic steps • The basic input/output system (BIOS) is activated when the user powers on the CPU • IN the POST check, the BIOS verifies that all attached devices are in place • The operating system is loaded into RAM • Configuration and customization settings are checked What are the main desktop and windows features? The desktop provides your first interaction with the OS and is the first image you see on your monitor once the system had booted up. It provides you with access to your c omputers files, folders, and commonly used tools and applications. Windows are the rectangular panes on your screen that display applications running on your system. Common features of windows include toolbars, scrollbars, and minimize, maximize and restore and close buttons • Note CPU – central processing unit How does the operating system help me keep my computer organized? The OS allows you to organize the contents of your computer in a hierarchical structure of directories that includes files, folders, libraries, and drives. Windows Explorer helps you mange your files and folders by showing the location and contents of every drive, folder, and file on your computer. Creating folders is the key to organizing files because folders keep related documen ts together. Following naming conventions and using proper file extensions are also important aspects of file management What utility programs are included in system software, and what do they do? Some utility programs are incorporated into the OS; others are sold as stand alone off the shelf programs. Common Windows utilities include those that enable you to adjust your display, add or remove programs, compress files, defragment your hard drive, c lean unnecessary files off your system, check for lost files and errors, restore your system to an earlier setting, back up your files, schedule automatic tasks, and check on programs that have stopped running. Definitions: Disk Defragmenter: A utility that regroups related pieces of files on the hard drive, enabling faster retrieval of the data Error Checking: A Windows itility that checks for lost files and fragments as well as physical errors on a hard drive File Compression: A program that takes out redundancies in a file to reduce the file size File Management: The process by which humans or computer software provide organizational structure to a computers contents File: A collection of related pieces of information stored together for easy reference ; in database terminology, a file or table is a group of related records Folders: A collection of files stored on a computer Linux: An open source operating system based on UNIX. Because of the stable nature of this operating system, it is often used on Web servers Mac OS: The first commercially available operating system to incorporate a graphical user interface (GUI) with user-friendly point-and-click technology Platform: The combination of a computers operating system and processor. The two most commo n platform types are the PC and the Apple Macintosh System Files: Any of the main files of an operating system System Software: The set of programs that enables a computers hardware devices and application software to work together it includes the operating system and utility programs Task Manager: A Windows utility that shows programs currently running and permits you to exit nonresponsive programs when you click End Task Task Scheduler: A Windows utility that enables you to schedule tasks to run automat ically at predetermined times with no interaction necessary on your part Track: a concentric circle that serves as a storage area on a hard drive platter Utility programs: A small program that preforms many of the general housekeeping tasks for the compute r, such as system maintenance and file compression Windows: An operating system by Microsoft that incorporates a user -friendly graphical interface Windows Explorer: The main tool for finding, viewing, and managing the contents of your computer b showing the location and contents of every drive, folder, and file Windows 7: Microsoft operating system that builds upon the security and user interface upgrades that the Windows Vista release provided, and gives users with touch -screen monitors that ability to use touch commands to scroll, resize windows, pan and zoom Chapter 6: Understanding and Assessing your Hardware: Evaluating your System # • Moore’s law dictates that CPU speed will double every 18 months • External hard drives can drastically increase the memory of a notebook The CPU is located on the motherboard (motherboard: primary circuit board of a computer) CPU is comprised of two units: • The control unit that coordinates all other parts of the computer • The arithmetic logic unit preforms all math calculations and makes logical decisions (this larger than, less than, equal to that, etc) A machine cycle in a computer proceeds as: CPU retrieves instruction from the RAM, decodes instruction into computer language, executes the instruction, stores result in RAM Factors that distinguish CPU’s: • Core: complete processing section from the CPU embedded into one chip (multiple cores allow the CPU to execute multiple instructions at once as opposed to hyperthreading that allows another instruction to begin execution before the original instruction has finished) • Clock speed: how fast it can process information • Cache memory: memory more accessible to the CPU than RAM is (immediate access memory) o Level 1 cache: stores da ta/commands that have just been used o Level 2 cache: contains more storage area than level 1 (slightly further away than level one, therefore it takes longer to access) o Level 3 cache: even more storage, even slower access • Front Side Bus (FSB): connects CPU with computer memory (RAM), speed of FSB directly affects productivity of CPU Netbook CPUs are different than Desktop CPUs because they must use low power to increase battery life and have increased flexibility in connectivity options CPU usage is referred to as the percentage of time that your CPU is working, to view information on this usage, open the task manager Upgrading a CPU does not directly upgrade your computer’s performance —it will only upgrade the processing portion of the CPU, not how fast data moves to or from the CPU RAM (random access memory): a computers temporary memory space (considered volatile memory because when the power is off the RAM is wiped) ROMs and harddrives are non -volatile memory space, areas that are not wiped when the power is off It is faster for the CPU to retrieve information from the RAM than a harddrive – the faster the retrieval the more expensive the equipment is Types of RAM: DDR2, DDR3, DRAM, SDRAM, SRAM, better modules often work at lower temperatures which are more reliable Memory modules are small circuit boards that hold series of RAM chips (referred to as dual inline memory modules DIMM) The kernel memory is the memory that your operating system uses RAM contains the memory of all programs being used while a syst em is on… so you need a lot The more RAM you have the faster/more efficient your computer will work… but every computer has a limit of how much RAM it can handle RAM is relatively easy to add to a system and is not expensive compared to other upgrades howe ver prices fluxuate a lot LONG TERM (non-volatile) STORAGE: • Harddrive: largest storage capacity, cheapest to purchase, the access time to retrieve information stored on the harddrive is very quick " Information is stored on the harddrive on ‘platters’, when info is stored to these platters small magnetized bits appear, and their orientation denotes whether they represent a 1 or a 0 ! Solid state drives are very fast versions of harddrives that are expensive but gaining popularity • Optical storage use lasers to store and read data, such as CDs, DVDs and Blu -ray disks (optical media) " ROM versions of these optical medias are read only and no information can be stored to them " -R versions (recordable) of these optical medias allow information to b e saved or burned on to them " DVDs and Blu-rays can not be played on a CD player, but a blu -ray player can play everything " DVD drives are faster than CD drives • A video card/adaptor translates binary data into images to view on your monitor " Contain their own RAM referred to as video memory " Contain graphic processing unit (GPU) which the CPU with direct information to ! A GPU works in the same way as a CPU but it handles 3D images and videos, allowing the CPU to work more efficiently ! GPUs exist on video cards ! Video card memory can be found in a computer’s advanced settings ! A new video card is needed if your computer is loading pictures/the web/videos very slowly • Sound cards are chips that can be added to the motherboard that enables a computer to produce sounds " Many computers have a 3D soundcard: ! good at convincing the human ear that the sounds perceived are omnidirectional (without a detectable location) ! surround sound on the other hand convinces the ears that the sound is originating from all directions " a standard sound card allows you to attach a microphone, put a line in (headphones) and speaker out – any additional sound requirements need an updated sound card If your computer is freezing/crashing/restarting: • check that you have enough RAM • run a restore program • if you have an error code in windows visit the online Microsoft knowledge base for help • upgrade software when updates are available Chapter 7: Networking Connection Computer Devices Objectives • What is a network, advantages/disadvantages of setting up one? • What is the difference between a client/server network and a peer -to-peer network? • Main components of every network • What type of network most commonly found in the home? • What equipment and software do I need to build a network in my home? • Besides computers, what other devices would I connect to a home network? • Why are wireless networks more vulnerable than wired networks, and what special precautions are required to ensure my wireless network is secure? • How do I configure the software on my computer and set up other devices to get my network up and running? • What problems might I encounter when setting up a wireless network? Networking Fundamentals o Computer network: two or more computers that are connected via software and hardware so they can communicate (ATM, get gas, internet) o Node: each device connected to a network (computer, peripheral(printer), game console) o Main function- facilitate information sharing Benefits o Share internet connections, peripheral device (printer), files (music, videos) o Computers running different operating systems (windows or OS X) can communicate on same network Disadvantages o Purchase of additional equipment o Network administration 1) Installing new computer and devices 2) Monitoring the network to ensure performance 3) Updating/installing software 4) Configuring proper security Network Architecture : design of a network, classified by how they are controlled and distance between nodes o Local administration: configuration/maintenance must be performed on each individual compu ter o peer-to-peer network: each node can communicate directly with every other node on the network, all node are peers (equal), most common in homes) o Central administration: tasks can be preformed from one computer o client/server network: computer acts as a client making requests or a server providing resources (internet) o home network server: store media, share media and back up files on computers connected to the network Network Based on distance o local area network (LAN): nodes located in small geographic area (lab at school, fast-food restaurant) o wide area network (WAD): made up of LANs connected over long distance (east and west campus) o home area network (HAN): network located at home, connect all digital devices o metropolitan area network (MAN): internet access to residents and visitors Network components 1) means of connecting nodes 2) special devices allowing nodes to communicate 3) software that allows network to run Transmission Media o transmission media: establishes a communication channel between nodes o wireless: use radio waves o wired: various cables o Twisted-pair cable: copper wires that are twisted together and surrounded by plastic jacket (telephone cable) o Coaxial cable: single copper wire surrounded by plastic (cable TV) o Fiber-optic cable: plastic or glass fibers that transmit data, not usually used inside the home o Data transfer rate (bandwidth): maximum speed data can be transmitted o Throughput: actual speed of data, always less or equal to data transfer rate o Both measured in megabits per second Network Adapters o Network adapters: devices connected to nodes to allow communication and access to networks o Network interface card (NIC): network adapter that is installed inside a computer o Why use wired ! Wireless susceptible to interference from magnetic or ele ctrical sources ! Other wireless networks can interfere ! Building materials can decrease throughput ! Throughput varies depending on distance from network equipment Networking navigation devices: facilitate and control the flow of data o Packet: bundled data o Router: transfers packets of data between two or more networks o Switch: “traffic cop”, receive data packets and send them to their intended node (intergraded in routers) Network software o Home networks need operating system (OS) software that support P3P ne tworking o Network operating system (NOS):for client/server networks (windows server 2008 R2 and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server) Home Ethernet Networks Ethernet home networks o Ethernet network: uses Ethernet protocol (developed by institute of Electrical and El ectronic engineers (IEEE)) for nodes to communicate o 802.11= wireless o 802.3 = wired o Current standard that governs wireless networking is the 802.11n standard (Wi -Fi) o 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n (fastest data transfer, most desirable) o Backward compatibility: current devices able to use previously issues standards o Transceiver: device that translates the electronic data into radio waves, send and receive signals o Multiple input multiple output (MIMO): use multiple antennas for transmitting/receiving data Throughput speeds o Install utilities to measure throughput such as net meter o Ideal throughput 50 to 200 Mbps with wireless o Up to 1000 Mbps with wired (gigabit Ethernet standard used for wired) Networking cabling o Unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cable: most popular wired Ethernet , 4 pairs of wires that are twisted to reduce electrical interference, most have RJ -45 connectors (resemble phone connectors) o 3 types of UTP: Cat 5E (cheapest, 100Mbps, Cat 6 (support gigabit Ethernet, best choice), Cat 6a (ultra fast Ethernet, 10 gigabit Ethernet) o UTP cable can’t exceed 100 meters (328 feet) Wired and Wireless on One Network: can have both in on network o Non-Ethernet networks rare because Ethernet networks 1) Based on well established standard 2) Feature easy set-up 3) Provide good throughput 4) Cost effective Home Ethernet Equipment Routers and Switches: moving data around your network o Need a router, a switch (usually built into router) Connecting devices to Routers o Most home routers can support up to 253 wireless connections o More devices, smaller bandwidth each node receives o Router should be connected directly to broadband modem o Setting up router: basic info such as logon info, type of IP Connecting Network Nodes o Need a wireless network interface card (NICs), most computers have them install inside Connecting Other devices to the Network Network-ready devices (internet ready): connected directly to router instead to a computer o Network attached storage (NAS) devices: store and manage data o Automatically back up all computers connected to the network o Act as a repository for files to be shared across the network o Function as an access gateway to allow any computer on the network to be accessed from a remote location via the internet o Apple computers, time capsule is a wireless rou ter combined with hard drive, works in conjunction with time machine backup feature of OS X Digital Entertainment Devices on a Network o Main reason to access and share digital content o When connected to internet; enjoy movies, videos, music, gaming devicNetflix o Through streaming: sent directly to device without being saved, requires lots of bandwidth o Downloaded(saved): saved to a hard rive o Many digital entertainment drives are network -ready with direct connection to network o Companies developing applicati ons that enable handheld devices to act as controls (BD remote) Specialized home Networking Devices o Internet appliances: easy access to the internet, social networking sites, emails, video etc o First marketed towards older computer users, but now very age group o Digital picture frames now incorporate wireless adapters o Enhance home security; cameras (Logitech Digital Video Security System) Securing wireless Networks o Wireless more vulnerable to hackers(breaks into system) cause of wide range o Piggybacking: connecting to a wireless network (other than your own) without permission o Packets of info on a wireless network are broadcast through the airwaves, hackers can incept/decode info, should take additional precautions described in the Sound Byte “Securing Wireless Networks”; 1. Change your network name (SSID: service set identifier) 2. Disable SSID broadcast 3. Change the default password on your router 4. Turn on security protocols: when connecting a new node recurred to enter password 5. Implement media access control: each network adapter has unique number (media access control (MAC) address) 6. Limit your signal range 7. Apply firmware upgrades: router has read -only memory Configuring software for Your Home Network Window Configuration 1. Make sure each node has a network adapter 2. Wired connections are all plugged 3. Broadband modem is connected to router and internet 4. Turn equipment on in this order, broadband modem, router, computers and peripherals o Computer with various versions of windows can coexist o Windows 7 created Homegroup, ne ed password to join, option to decide what you share o Connecting a Mac is much easier, connect router same, need to know SSID and passphrase o Networks with SSID broadcast turned will not appear on available networks, have to enter name and password Wireless node configuration o Wired connection, simply plug cable in o Wireless, set of steps, need to know SSID and security passphrase Troubleshooting network problems o Maximum range of wireless devices: 350 feet o Wireless range extender: device that amplifies wireless signals Chapter 8: Digital Lifestyle, Managing Digital Data and Devices • Everything used to be in analog, now it is in digital: movies, music, tv, radio, stock prices • Any kind of information can be digitized (measured and converted into numerivalues) o Digital formats describe signals as long strings of numbers, opposed to long continuous lines (waves) of analog, gives us a way to simplistically and perfectly describe light and sound waves exactly o Easy ways of communicating digital information: c ds, dvds, email • Long, complex shapes can be duplicated in a sequence of numbers by analog -to-digital conversion o Incoming analog signal is measured many times each second, strength of the signal at each measurement is recorded as simple number; series of nu mbers produced by analog - to-digital process gives us the digital form of a wave • When switched to digital standard, new capabilities, could hold huge collections of information, can now interact any way we’d like with our information Digital Telephony: Com municating with Bits • Telephony is the use of equipment to provide voice communications over a distance • Cell phones have evolved from big chunky devices to compact and fully featured communication and information storage device; have all tradition phone fe atures in addition to internet access, text messaging, personal information management, voice recording, GPS, digital image and video o The fullest featured phones are smartphones that require data plans to fully access its abilities, have enough computing p ower to run programs like Microsoft excel and powerpoint • When you speak into a cell phone, it goes through a microphone as a sound wave thus the phone needs an analog-to-digital converter chip and converts the voice into a digital sound wave • Digital data must be compressed into the smallest space possible so that it will transmit more quickly to another phone o The processor cannot perform the math quick enough, so a special chip, digital signal processor, is included to handle the compression work; when a call comes in it decompresses the incoming message o The digital data is transmitted as radio wave to the other phone on the cellular network • Set of connected ‘cells’ make a cellular network, each cell is geographic area centered on a base transceiver station ( a large communications tower with antennas, amplifiers, receivers, and transmitters) o On a call, a base stations picks up the request for service and passes it along to a central location called a mobile switching center (reverse for incoming) o A wireless network makes money by constructing series of cells that overlap in attempt to guarantee service no matter where you are o If you are moving during the call, the signal is changed when it is no longer strong enough and asks the next station to take care of your call, when a call drops out it is because the distance between base stations was too great to provide signal • Smart/Cell phones have many of the same features as computers; a processor (CPU), memory, input/output devices, also have their own operating system (OS) software, own application software • The processor is not as powerful as a computer obviously, but is responsible for a great number of tasks, coordinates sending all data among the other electronic components inside the phone o Runs the OS (changes phone settings, store information, play games, etc), o Popular processors include Qualcomm Snapdragon, Texas Instrument OMAP, Marvell XScale • When shopping for a smartphone, use published benchmarking for performance, can be found online • Each manufacturer makes own changes to OS and designs user interface, thus different set of commands and icons o Common smartphones use Windows mobile, Windows 7, OS X, or webOS; the most common is the android OS which was developed by Google o OS translates users commands int o instructions for processo • The OS and saved info (contacts) need to be stored in memory; OS stored in read -only memory (ROM), other phone data is stored in separate internal memory chips (ring tones) o Full-featured phones have about 200 MB of internal memo ry and additional support through micro SD flash cards that can store up to 32 GB and are easy to install (not available in iPhones) o This storage can be used for contacts, ring tones, pictures, songs, videos, and software applications • Primary input devices include keypad and microphone; most smartphones feature touch -sensitive screens or hidden keyboards • Often include digital cameras, quality level catching up to standalone point -and-shoot cameras • Output devices include a speaker and liquid crystal display; new on the market are organic light - emitting didoe (OLED) which have excellent images and draw less power from the phone o Cell phone and cable providers are teaming up to deliver broadcast TV to smartphones • Files can easily be transferred from your phone a nd computer with the flash cards; some can be directly slipped into the computers SD slot, or most phones are now have USB ports o Connecting with the USB cable, phone appears like an additional flash drive on computer and you can drag and drop files into it • The connection also allows you to synchronize your phone and your computer data (calendar, files) all it takes is pushing the sync button when your phone is connected to your computer and the data transfer updates both device to have the most up -to-date files • Bluetooth technology uses radio waves to transmit data signals over short distances; most cell phones are Bluetooth enabled, you can transmit data to a computer this way, and it also works with earpieces, mice, keyboards and headphones • ‘Cloud computing’ allows users to have all updated files and new additions to be pushed out from one device to others that are connected to them (from iPhone to iPad to desktop) o Apple has MobileMe for a surcharge to users, Google has Google Sync for free working with most devices • Text messaging or short message service allows you to send short messages up to 160 characters across mobile networks
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