45 Pages

Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 1020

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Gender and Sexuality Sex-biological characteristics of males and females Gender- social attitudes and behaviours of males and females Role- behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status Gender Role-behaviour expected of a female or male in a particular culture Sex Role-behavior defined by biological constraints Socialization- the process by which people learn characteristics of their group Gender Identity- a person’s psychological sense of being male or female Cross dressers- a member of one gender dresses up in clothes, and other gender-specific attire to appear to be a member of the other gender Transgendered persons-a person with the biological sex of one gender who has the identity or self-concept of the other gender and undergoes processes and/or procedure to change that sex Intersexed (Hermaphrodite)  A person who has intersexed sexual organs  A person for who the biological process of sex differentiation has been nonstandard  Rare-between 1/500 and 1/13000 live births  Causes: o Chromosomal abnormalities o Errors of metabolism affecting reproductive hormones o Exposure to exogenous steroids during fetal development Gender Roles and Kids  Young kids tend to be more accepting  There are always exceptions to the rule, and it is largely dependent of how the parents are bringing the children up  Majority of households have certain types of gender stereotypes that will be taught  Kids who don’t fit in with the norm may feel that there is something wrong with them, some kids may go through phases even they are not transgendered but they feel bad Gender Roles Across Culture  Northern Thailand o Kathoey as a third gender  Biological male with feminine social behaviours o Tom  Biological female who wants to be accepted as and live like a man o Samoan Fa’afafine  Biological males who dress and act feminine  Attracted to straight men  Considered a separate category, not seen as men within society Why Do Gender Roles Differ?  Sociobiology o Social behavior results from biological differences  Testosterone and estrogen  Social Learning Theory o We learn behaviours from our interaction with the environment o 2 kinds of learning  reinforcement: rewards and punishments  modeling: imitation  Cognitive Development Theory o How children think and reason changes as they grow older  2 year olds:  5 year olds: have a sense of gender identity  6 & 7 years olds: have achieved gender permanence  Gender Schema Theory o Children develop a framework of knowledge about what males and females typically do, then use that framework to interpret new information o Gender stereotypes Gender Socialization Parental Influences  Fathers and mothers treat their children differently 4 Ways parents socialize their children:  Physical and verbal manipulations: o What degree children are handled more gently or roughly  Stereotypical gender-identified objects o Trucks, dolls, sports equipment  Different verbal descriptions of the same behavior o Gentle, aggressive, non-competitive  Stereotypical gender-identified activities o Cooking, cleaning What Fathers Do  Spend more time with sons than daughters  Are playmates with children (rough and tumble play)  Set higher standards for sons than daughters  Stress feelings and emotions with daughters more than sons What Mothers Do  Express affection and verbal praise to daughters and sons equally  Stress emotions and feelings with daughters more than sons Peer Influences  Peers offer important approval or disapproval  Socialize to conform to certain styles of interaction  How girls are influenced o Dolls o Appearance  How boys are influenced o Toughness o Action figures Teacher Influences  More attention from teachers for boys o More likely to be called on o More likely to be given time to talk o More likely to be given praise  Boys tend to be louder and more demanding  Better grades for girls, except science, math, and reading by middle school o Less likely to be called on o If incorrect, less likely to be instructed about the correct way or answer Work Influences  Occupations dominated by females o Secretary, receptionist, nurse  Occupations dominated by males o Construction, engineering, farming Gender Socialization Media  Women and self-esteem  Media and men o Increasing pressure for men to fit a certain physical criteria o Men eating disorders on the rise Gender Roles in Transition: Benefits of Traditional Gender Roles: Promotes Stability Benefits to males:  Instrumental focus on work identity  Higher income and other job advantages  Less domestic work and marital stress Benefits to Females:  Expressive to focus on feelings and others’ needs  Identity tied to relationships rather than work  Closer attachments with children Drawbacks of Traditional Gender Roles Drawbacks for Males  Personal self-worth tied to job and income  Job-related stress  Less time for family life  Limited emotional expression  Limitations on child custody Drawbacks for Females  Reduced income and career fulfillment  Dependence on a spouse  The beauty problem  Less personal self-worth Changing Gender Roles  Androgyny=achieving flexibility o Androgyny: the quality of having one both male and female culturally defined characteristics  Postgender transcendence: beyond gender o Abandoning gender as destiny o Rejecting gender as a justification for inequality  Anxiety and confusion over role conflict  Role conflict: expectations of two or more roles are incompatible Sexuality Sexual Health in Canada  First comprehensive national portrait of Canadian’s sexual reproductive health  Canadian federation for sexual health (CFSH)  Compiled from a thorough review of all relevant data from government and academic sources Questions:  What percentage of women regularly have an orgasm during sex with a partner? 23%  Rates of new HIV infection in Canada have: stayed the same over the last few years o 2000-4000 new cases/year o 20% among people under 30 years of age o gay men more at risk, first nations people  1/5 Canadian women report using condoms consistently as their chosen method of birth control  among respondents 15-24, 16.5 was the average age of first sexual intercourse What is sexuality? Human sexuality: the ways in which we experience and express ourselves as sexual beings Dimensions:  physical  psychological  emotional  social  orientation  developmental  skill  reproductive  spiritual Sexual Orientation: What is most important? Consists of:  Who are we attracted to  Who we identify as  Who we fall in love with  Who we have been in relationships with most often in the past  Who we are currently in relationships with Sexual orientation: a person’s sexual and emotional orientation toward members of his or her own gender, other gender, or both Sexual identity DOES NOT equal gender identity  Gender identity is internal perception, doesn’t dictate who you are sexually attracted to Kinsey researchers suggest we all differ in terms of who we  Engage in sexual behavior with  Are attracted to  Fall in love with  0 entirely opposite sex, 6 entirely same sex o individuals vary across this spectrum, but heterosexual may still indicate a 1 or 2 o added a number 7 (asexual not attracted to anybody)  Kinsey published two controversial books “sexuality of males” “sexuality of females”  Discovered a lot about sexuality in the 50’s and exposed that many people were doing things that were typically frowned upon  Women were masturbating, same-sex relationships, individuals were having sex with animals The Genderbread Person v2.0  Identity: in your brain, continuum or non-gendered to woman-ness or man-ness  Expression: how you display yourself, masculine vs. feminine  Biological sex: organs, etc.  Attraction: Male/female What is sex? Defined as:  Vaginal sex  Oral sex  Anal sex  Manual stimulation  No orgasm o Men o Women  no ejaculation  Study with student 1999  many different beliefs about what sex should include: o Would you say you had sex if…many said yes for oral contact, few men for anal intercourse Why have sex?  N=444 men and women at University of Texas listed all the reasons they could think of  715 reasons collected-237 distinct reasons  most common reasons: o I was attracted to the person o I wanted to experience physical pleasure o It feels good o I wanted to express my love for the person o I wanted to show my affection for the person o I was sexually aroused and wanted the release o I was horny o It’s fun  Common answers for both men and women Why not have sex?  Commitment to self-schema  Risk of disappointing authority figures  Fear/apprehension of the sexual experience  Fear of physical consequences  Value of virginity  Reputation regret  No opportunity/ not important  Manipulation Benefits of Sex Physical Health  Cardiovascular fitness o Cells, organs and muscles are saturated with fresh oxygen and hormones  Improved cholesterol o Overall, and tips the HDL/LDL balance toward the healthier HDL sided  Increased flexibility  Strengthens the immune system o Sex once or twice a week-30% higher levels of immunoglobin A Emotional Health  Stress relief  Improved sleep  Reduced depression o Study of 293 women found women whose partners did not use condoms were less subject to depression o Prostaglandin- a hormone found in semen may be absorbed in the female genital tract and modulate female hormones Relationship Health  Maintains intimate connections  Builds passion and excitement  Sexual satisfaction  Relationship satisfaction and vice versa Sexual Behaviour in Adolescence  Masturbation is the major outlet  Dating begins  Petting o ½ of grade 9’s report touching “below the waist” o ¾ of grade 11’s  Oral sex o 1/3 of grade 9th and ½ of grade 12’s o gender difference in giving and receiving oral sex  First Sexual Intercourse o 20% of grade 9’s and 50% of grade 11’s  ¾ had no regrets, most evaluated experience positively  sexual identity development begins in gay/lesbian teens  context for adolescent sexual relationships more varied than previously though- eg. sex with friends  First sexual experiences:  Boys o More likely to experience orgasm o Motivated by curiosity  Girls o More likely to experience pain o Motivated by love Impact of Premarital Sex  People who had sex before marriage were not different in terms of sexual dysfunction, sex guilt, or overall health o Did report more STIs and less life satisfaction (small effect size) – Due to more time having sex o Can be associated with less sexual guilt usually more open  Early sexual debut (before age 15 for men, age 16 for women) associated with poorer overall health and more STIs o No difference in terms of sexual dysfunction or life satisfaction o Early sexual debut associated with LESS sexual guilt later on…  Most important thing is context of encounter  Positive Context positive experience  Negative contexts: o Forced to have sex o Sex with a blood relative o Being paid for sex o Be pressured o Influence of drugs/alcohol o Being touched by an adult prior to buerty  First sex in these circumstances is linked to; o Sexual dysfunction, sexual guilt, poorer health, more STIs, less like satisfaction Marital Sexuality  Married couples have more varied sex, more often, longer duration, than single-more satisfied  Conflicts over sex are common (1/3 at least once a month)  Extramartical (Affairs) sex- 10-15% of women, 25% of men Sex in Later Years  N=3005 adults aged 57-85 years old o 23% were having sex at least once a week (on target w/younger samples) o 54%, 74-85 having sex 2-3 times a month o almost half reported health difficulties that can affect sex, but are still participating  Likelihood of being sexually active declined steadily with age  However, substantial amount of individuals still engage in sexual activity  Need to overcome more to engage in sexual activity  Sexual activity positively associated with physical health Sexual Concerns  Women across age groups have concerns about: o Sexual interest, lubrication, unmet sexual needs  Men across age groups have concerns about: o Sexual functioning  Concerns occur with similar frequency among elderly and younger age groups  Elderly have no concern for pregnancy, don’t use condoms, increase in STIs Middle Age and The Empty Nest Middle Years of Life  Between the ages of 40/45-64 o Traditionally  What does this age mean for men? o A time for fulfillment, the pinnacle of their careers  What does this age mean for women? o A time of physical deterioration and feeling useless o Kind of negative and sexist o Menopause o Any meaning left for their lives is in caring for their husband and living out their hopes in their grandchildren  Long-20-25 years  Diverse o May include first time parents as well as great-grandparents  Transitional o Includes launching of children and new duties caring for aging parents Tasks of the Parent Generation  the relationship with their children changes as the children move from adolescence into young adulthood  once the children have become independent, parents need to learn how to relate to the children as adults rather than as children  renegotiate their couple system as a dyad, or pair, rather than as part of a larger family  roles they have assumed as a young couple or parents may not reflect their needs now  couples who have stayed together for the sake of their children may now separate, or continue unhappily together because they feel stuck in the relationship  if any members of the grandparent generation are in ill health, the parents may need to deal with their disability and possible death  there may be a shift in focus for care-giving activities from children to parents Tasks of the Child Generation  the child generation need to differentiate themselves from their family of origin and develop their own values and goals for life  factors can impact on this process, such as unemployment or parental illness Men at Midlife  for men, lives focus on family and work  both of these areas are in transition at this time  for some, strain leads to “midlife crisis” o has he achieved his dreams? o Children are becoming more independent- may feel jealous or resentful of their youthfulness and health o Men are moving up one generation- recognizing own mortality o Faced with the prospect of life alone with partner-who may remind them of their own aging Women at Midlife  Most women in this age range are at work  Women’s experience of aging is different than men’s o Includes the experience of menopause o Women considered “old” before men  Women’s relationship with family is often different than men’s o More intimately associated with nurturing and childrearing tasks o May feel relief at launching, or a sense of loss o May experience “empty nest syndrome” o May need to find a new centre for their lives Marriage and Sexuality at mid life  Couples review their marriages and work out new arrangements  May lead to an increase in sex o More time, freedom, privacy o No fear of pregnancy The Younger Generation Changes in four areas:  Sexuality  Identity  Autonomy  Attachment/separation  Adolescents move towards a peer group and a partner, may be experienced as a loss by the family The Not-So-Empty Nest  42.3% of unattached adults 20-29 years of age live with their parents o getting married later o longer time spent in education o difficulty finding work  Many live in a “revolving door” phenomena o Job loss, unemployment or relationship breakdown o Can make a contribution to the home and grandchildren can benefit o BUT-other research suggests this can be stressful and lead to less life satisfaction among parents o Many practical issues, privacy, cost, etc. The Sandwich Generation  Stress from the younger and older generation o Aging parents become more dependent of adult children o Burdens most often fall upon women  Middle generation is pulled between separating from young and accepting more responsibility for the old Sample Question What is meant when we say that midlife is a period of transistion? a) men experience midlife crisis b) there is an increase in marital pleasure c) there is a shift in family relationships d) women experience physical deterioration Aging Aging Canadian Population  ¼-1/3 over age 65  legally required in Ontario to provide support to parents who need it Dimensions of Aging: Chronological Age  number of years a person has lived  many people who write about old age use 65 as the starting-off mark. In fact, 65 is a relatively new standard  Young old vs. old old living longer, so very different criteria, don’t really fit in same category of functioning and needs Physical Age  Physical changes occur during the aging process  There are sex and class differences in how physical changes are regarded o Manual labour vs. professional field o Age may be viewed differently depending on field, manual labour it would be viewed negatively because the job may become more difficult  Some social scientists suggest that old age begins when physical disability sets in Psychological Age  Some believe that aging is a frame of mind o Eg. Betty White, doesn’t fit the stereotype of “old”, has younger mindset and is still moving on in life  It is difficult to find qualities that are characteristic of most elderly  They show more differences than similarities just like young people Social Age  Social age is based on cultural norms which specify how we should act at a certain age o Who should be going on in life depending on age, how they should act, etc.  The timing of marker events such as grandparenthood, widowhood, and retirement are changing  attitudes toward timing changes are not unanimous o such as across cultures Increased Longevity  with increased longevity, people are more likely to survive to ages at which they can experience later-life cycle stages  increased longevity has resulted in new terminology to describe the older members of our society o young-old : 65-74 o middle old: 75-84 o old old: 85+  this allows older individuals more time to experience older age than previous generations, more time with grandchildren, experience society, work longer, etc.  however, this can also lead to living longer with chronic illnesses Aging and Family Relationships  for older people, as for younger, family relationships depend on a number of factors: o a person must have relatives in order to have any interaction o the frequency and variety of contact matter o the quality of family relationships is important o if you have good relationships, not much impact on social isolation however, if you don’t have good relationships, aging can be very isolating  majority of older people live with family member, usually a spouse  more men than women over 65 are married  it is easier for men to find a partner at this age  women, however, have more social support  couples who are married at this point have a more relaxed attitude toward life, more time, and more emotional connectedness Aging and Dating  quite open about it, want to talk about it Aging and Family Relationships  relationship with own children  relationship with grandchildren o raising grandchildren o impact of divorce  most older people have at least one living brother or sister- but there is less interaction than with children or grandchildren o when they come together it is because of shared interests and family history rather than sense of obligation Three Key Issues for Older People and Their Family Members  independence vs. dependence o economic, physical, mental condition  connectedness vs. separateness o desire for independence  open vs. private o particularly in institutions, with illness What does the future hold?  Large but temporary increase in proportion of elderly because of increasing life expectancy o Aging of baby boom generation  Myths about elderly will be challenged  Increase in “grey power” as many are financially secure Uncoupling: Separation and Divorce Uncoupling  Diane Vaughan (1986) – the series of stages couples move toward ending their relationships o Dissatisfaction o Attempts at change o Turning elsewhere-for personal validation o Furthering distancing- complaints, cost-benefit o Resolution (now understanding the relationship needs to end) o Informing the other partner- conscious/unconscious o Acknowledging the ending, formally separating to permanently be apart o Not always a balanced decision Marital Disaffection Process  Decision to stay in marriage is a weighing of costs and benefits o Focus on negative traits make changes hard to make  Focusing on negative, you forget the positive o Negative focus continues so that ex-spouses can convince themselves divorce was the right choice Divorce Laws in Canada  1900’s- divorce in Canada required an Act of Parliament  After WW2 divorce rate jumped o Women achieved independence in the work force o After this, divorce rate fell as concept of family was appealing  In the 1960’s and 70’s- No-Fault Divorce Laws o No longer necessary for one spouse to take blame o Required spouses to live apart for 3-5  1985 Divorce Act, “Marital Breakdown” o is only a necessary ground (but adultery and cruelty can be used to explain breakdown) o waiting period reduced to 1 year Recent Changes to Divorce Act  amendments in 2002, to focus on children’s needs first and foremost o list of criteria o focus on “parental responsibilities” instead of “custody” and “access” o parents to decide if they will carry out their parental responsibilities on their own or with help from a mediator, counselor, or lawyer o enforcement of child support o child abduction laws and penalties Divorce  What is the divorce rate? o Crude divorce rate=number of divorces/number of people  Very low because it includes children and single o Divorces in a year/marriages in a year  Problems with this math?  If marriage rate goes down, it will look like divorce rate is going up, even if it isn’t  Eg. 5 divorces/100 marriages 5% while 5 divorces/80 marriages is 6.25%  Isn’t those same people getting married in that year who would be getting a divorce in that year o Rolling divorce rate- number of people in a population ever divorced/number of people ever married o Divorces in a lifetime method- looks at couples married 30 years ago and sees what proportion of these couples has since divorced Total Divorce Rate by 30th Wedding Anniversary -average duration of marriage is 14 years -average age in 40’s for divorce Getting a Divorce in Canada  Separation o Decision to live apart permanently o Agreements made about:  Custody  Access  child support  Spousal support  Property o Need to create a separation agreement  Can do this formally, or informally, independently or with the courts  Who can get a divorce?  You can apply for a divorce in Canada if: o You were legally married in Canada or in any other country AND o You intend to separate permanently from your spouse AND o One or both spouses have lived in Canada for at least 1 year immediately prior to applying for divorce  You can divorce on the ground of marital breakdown IF: o Lived apart for one year with the idea that marriage is over OR o One spouse has committed adultery and not been given by other spouse OR o One spouse has been physically or mentally cruel, making it unbearable to continue living together o If you have not been living apart you must have proof for reasons 2 or 3 The Divorce Process in Canada  Uncontested divorce o Both spouses in agreement, never have to go to court o Court officials just process documents  Contested Divorce o Documents submitted about issues that can’t be agreed upon o Cases goes to trial, judge decides o A certificate of divorce can be applied for o Takes many months- a judge can rule sooner about custody, spousal support and child support if necessary  Uncontested divorce in Canada is much more common than contested divorce (just over 90% of divorces are uncontested) Under what circumstances would you seek a divorce?  An affair  Mistreatment of children  Additions (drugs, alcohol, gambling)  Falling out of love Reasons for Divorce  Fundamental issues o Infidelity and abuse  Experiential issues o Disagreements, unsatisfactory sex life  Fertility Issues o Infertility issues, presence of children Top 5 Reasons for a Divorce in Canada 1. Different values and interests 2. Abuse- physical and emotional 3. Alcohol and drugs 4. Infidelity 5. Career-related conflict Reasons for Divorce  Cultural and demographic factors o Shift towards focus on personal fulfillment o Early marriage o Premarital cohabitation o Having divorced parents Divorce Cascade (Gottman) Increasing conflict Serious consideration separation divorce Effects of Divorce Emotional Crisis  Loss of important relationship o Akin to death of a loved one  Loss of part of oneself o Redefining oneself as an individual, ones role  Social isolation-must build new social networks o Women may find it difficult to find identity- not same as single, not same as married  Adapting happens within 2 years, “reasonably satisfying life by 6 years” Economic Crisis  Most expensive life event  Drop in standard of living, especially for custodial parent Parenting Crisis  Authority and responsibility regarding children need to be renegotiated  Parental communication is key as new roles, rules are established  Divorcing parents may find it difficult to respond to children’s emotional needs Effects on Both Spouses  Separation distress o Feelings of depression, loss, anxiety, and loneliness o Experienced by both, but earlier by the initiator  Loneliness and stigma  Stress  Health problems  Economic problems  Conflict o Especially regarding children, visitation, etc. o Challenges post-divorce and lack of social resources  Positive effects o Relief o Closeness with children o Personal growth and maturity Effects on Fathers  Remarriage often results lower levels of parenting satisfaction and involvement in children’s activities  Noncustodial fathers often unsatisfied with arrangements, proceedings o Masculine identity suffers- lack of power, control, relegation ton only economic support o Limited contact Why do fathers have reduced contact and visitation?  Feel less competent  Feel less satisfied in and connected to the role of “father”  However-some fathers get MORE involved post-divorce o Feel they finally have an opportunity to be more than economic support Gender Differences  Who reports higher distress? o Men o Women  Who reports more alcohol problems? o Men o Women  Who reports greater drop in standard of living? o Men o Women Effects of Divorce on Children  Changes children’s lives forever  Few children want their parents to divorce… BUT… o Harmful effects of divorce depend on what was going on in the marriage o Negative long-term effects have become so exaggerated, they have beome self-fulfilling prophecy o Tension and turmoil leading up to divorce worse than divorce  Divorce can improve family functioning o If custody rules are clear and agreed upon o If civility is maintained  Children who had warm relationships with parents before divorce do as well as children from intact families…so….  In many cases, poor outcomes for childr
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