Final exam review.docx

13 Pages

Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 2060
Scott Brandon

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FRHD*2060 Final Exam Review n Models n Key Terms  n Key Matters Chapter 5: Person-Environment Interactions and OptimalAging Key Theorists: Lawton and Nahemow’s Model Adaptation level: The point at which particular levels of competence and environment press are in balance Competence: The theoretical upper limit of a person’s capacity to function Environmental Press: The the varying demands placed on a person by the environment Kahana’s Model Congruence Model: The notion that people need to find the environment in which they fit and that meets their needs best Willis Model of Everyday Competence Antecedents: Individual and sociocultural Components: Intraindividual and contextual Mechanisms: Variables that can affect expression of competence Outcomes: Primarily physical and psychological well-being, the basic components of successful aging Moos’s Approach Meap (Multiphasic EnvironmentalAssessment Procedure) There are four aspects to this approach: 1. Physical 2. Architectural 3. Organizational and administrative 4. Supportive Enables us to measure and examine separate dimensions of person-environment interaction independently Socio-Psychological Perspectives Is the medical model the best model? Mitigation Factors: -Decision to enter nursing home usually not usually made by individual -Nursing home resident/ patient has negative connotation -Overly helpful may harm patient making them more dependant than they need to be -Strict routine is detrimental to well-being Key Matters: Issues In Prevention of Disease Primary Prevention: Any intervention that prevents a disease or condition from occurring Secondary Prevention: Program instituted early after a condition has begun (but may not yet have been diagnosed) and before significant impairments have occurred Tertiary Prevention: Efforts to avoid the development of complications or secondary chronic conditions, manage the pain associated with the primary chronic condition, and sustained life through medical intervention Quaternary Prevention: Efforts specifically aimed at improving the functional capacities of people who have chronic conditions Types of Long Term Care Facilities Adult Foster Care: Adult family homes – This housing option provides an alternative to nursing homes for adults who do not need 24-hour care Assisted Living Facilities: Housing for older people that need personal care (i.e. help bathing or taking medication) but are not impaired physically or cognitively that they need 24-hour care Person Environment Interactions Equations B = F(P,E) B= Behaviour P=Person E= Environment *Behaviour is both the function of the person and the environment* Health Promotion and Disease Prevention -Adopt a healthful lifestyle; make it part of your daily routine -Stay active cognitively; keep an optimistic outlook and maintain your interest in things -Maintain a social network and stay engaged with others -Maintain good economic habits to avoid financial dependency • Key Terms: Body Mass Index (BMI): Ratio of body weight and height that is related to total body fat Everyday Competence: Aperson’s potential ability to perform a wide range of activities considered essential for independent living Infantilization: Secondary baby talk, a type of speech that involves the unwarranted use of a person’s first name, terms of endearment (honey and sweetie), simplified expressions, short imperatives an assumption that the recipient has no memory; and cajoling as a means of demanding compliance Loss Continuum: Theory of person-environment interactions based on the notion that social participation declines as personal losses increase, including children leaving, loss of social roles, loss of income, death of spouse or close friends and relatives, loss of sensory acuity and loss of mobility caused a poorer heath Patronizing Speech: Inappropriate speech based on stereotypes of incompetence and dependence Person-Environment Interactions: The interface between people and the world which they live that forms the basis for development, meaning that behaviour is a function of both the person and the environment 3 Key Adaptive Mechanisms for Aging (SOC) 1. Selection (focus one’s resources) 2. Optimization (maximization of gains) 3. Compensation (maximization of losses) Successful Aging 1. Avoid disease 2. Be engaged with life 3. Maintain high cognitive and physical function Chapter 11: Relationships Key Terms: Abusive Relationship: Arelationship in which one partner displays aggressive behaviour toward the other partner Assortative Mating: Atheory that states that people find partners based on their similarity to each other Battered Woman Syndrome: Asituation in which a woman believes that she cannot leave an abusive relationship and may even go so far as to kill her abuser Common Couple Violence: Violence that occurs occasionally and that can be instigated by either partner Exchange Theory: Atheory of relationships based on the idea that each partner contributes something to the relationship that the other would be hard pressed to provide Extended Family: Afamily consisting of parents, children, grandparents, and other relatives all living together Family Life Cycle: Aseries of predictable changes that most families experience Filial Obligation: The feeling that, as an adult child, one must care for one’s parents Global Reciprocity: Aprocess in a long-term relationship that allows for the perception that support will be balanced equitably over time Grandparenting Style: The various ways in which grandparents interact with their grandchildren Homogamy: The notion that similar interest and values are important in forming strong, lasting interpersonal relationships Mating Gradient: The tendency for men to marry women younger than themselves who typically have fewer resources and less job experience Nuclear Family: Afamily consisting of parents and children Patriarchal Terrorism: Systematic violence by men against women Socioemotional Selectivity: Atheory of relationships that argues that social contact is motivated by a variety of goals, including information seeking, self-concept, and emotional regulation Cross Cultural Research: describes that mate preferences are subject to powerful cultural norms Key Matters: Three Broad Themes Underlie Adult Friendships 1. Affective or emotional basis • This includes self-disclosure, expectations of intimacy, appreciation, affection and support – also based on trust, loyalty and commitment 2. Shared or communal nature • Friends participate in or support activities of mutual interest 3. Sociability and compatibility • Friends keep us entertained and are a sources of amusement, fun, and recreation Age Differences -Young adults tend to have more friends and acquaintances than other age groups -Friends in old age are especially important for maintaining life satisfaction -Socioemotional Selectivity by Carson Goals: Info-seeking, self-concept, emotional regulation Gender Differences in Friendships -Men tend to have fewer friends than women -Men’s friendships tend to be based on shared activities -Women’s friendships are based on intimate emotional sharing -Cross-gender friendships tend to be very difficult to maintain 5 Types of Sibling Relationships 1. Congenial 2. Loyal 3. Intimate 4. Apathetic 5. Hostile -Loyal and congenial relationships describe nearly two-thirds of all older siblings -Sibling ties among sisters tend to be strongest Love Relationships Sternberg has identified 3 components of love: 1. Passion 2. Intimacy 3. Commitment -Good couple relationships maintain all three components -Combinations produce 7 types of love Gender Differences The triad of relationships: 1. Need to control 2. Misuse of power 3. Jealously Culture issues: cultures that emphasize honour and portray women, as passive supporters of men’s activities of sacrifice with for family tend to tolerate abuse Elder Abuse and Neglect Elder abuse is difficult to define and has 7 categories: 1. Physical 2. Sexual 3. Emotional or psychological 4. Medical 5. Financial or material 6. Legal 7. Abandonment Singlehood -Men stay single longer, although fewer men remain single throughout adulthood -There are health and longevity consequences of being single for men but not for women -Women with higher levels of education are over represented among unmarried adults Marital Status Factors influencing marital success: 1. Maturity of two partners at time of marriage 2. Homogamy = similarity 3. Feelings of equality = associated with exchange theory The Development Course of Marital Satisfaction -Childless couples tend to remain satisfied throughout their marriage -Couples with children show decline in their marital satisfaction while children still live at home -Marriages where both partners remain mutually dependant on each other tend to remain happy What Are Long-Term Marriages Like -Most long-term marriages tend to be happy -Couples in long-term happy marriages tend to have the ability to adapt to changes in their relationships -Couples realize expectations about ones marriage can change over time -The partners express few negative emotions Divorce -Although most couples intend for
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