Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP)
What Causes PSP?
Shellfish are filter feeders, which Symptoms – What Will
means they feed by filtering You Feel?
• • •
microscopic organisms from the
• Tingling (pins & needles
water. Therefore, they can sensation)
accumulate bacteria, viruses and
biotoxins in their tissues. With high • Nausea
enough levels of certain toxins (i.e.
• Numbness around lips,
saxitoxins), when toxin- gradually spreading to face and
contaminated shellfish are
consumed they may cause PSP. • Difficulty swallowing
• Arm & leg weakness, paralysis
The Culprits – all of which can
accumulate toxins causing PSP Symptoms start quickly between 30
mins and3 hours. The symptoms
• Bivalve shellfish (oysters, clams, usually resolve completely within a
mussels, scallops) few hours to days after toxin-
• Other molluscan shellfish (whelks,
contaminated shellfish ingestion.
• Lobster & crab tomalley The intensity of symptoms depends
on the intensity of toxin poisoning.
In severe cases, muscle paralysis,
respiratory failure, and death can
occur within 12 hours.
Be careful what you eat because a
cure doesn’t exist!
What to Avoid?
Monitoring and prevention programs for shellfish toixns (i.e. saxitoxin)
exists in Canada, so check if the harvest area is open. If it’s closed, then
you know it’s not safe!
When at shopping at a market, be sure to purchase shellfish from
reputable suppliers. Shellfish should have tag verification of federal
• Prepared cane is crushed in a series sand, and grit)
of large roller millers, which
extracts sweet juice and fibres
used in the boilers
• Both contain impurities such as
sand and grit Affination
• Softening the raw sugar and
removing the layer of mother liquor
• Raw sugar is mixed with warm syrup
of higher purity (forming a mixture
Syrup with called magma), and is centrifuged to
separate crystals form the syrup
• Small clumps of chalk are aasd Chalk clumps
bound to non-
grown in the juice, and collects sugar impurities
the non-sugar impurities
Colour removed, Decolourisation
and some • Removal of colour by using
inorganics (if absorption techniques of
exchange resins) pumping liquor through columns
of ion exchange resins or