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FOOD 4090 (3)
Doug Goff (3)
Final

Exam Notes (1st half of course).docx

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Department
Food Science
Course
FOOD 4090
Professor
Doug Goff
Semester
Winter

Description
Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals & Health Claims (part 1) Food Any nutritious substance that people eat or drink to maintain life and growth Optimal Nutrient Intake We want to eat and behave in such a way that we’re not inly healthy but healthier for longer in the future - Prevent deficiencies - Maintain healthy weights - Optimize health & Delay degenerative diseases Metabolic Syndrome Combination of factors that greatly increases risk of developing CVD - High fasting - Blood glucose / insulin resistance - Central obesity - Hypertension - Low blood HDL cholesterol - Elevated blood triglycerides Nutritionism Reductionist theory - Foods are the sum of their nutrient parts Functional Food Similar in appearance to (or may be) a conventional food consumed as part of a usual diet - Has physiological benefits - Needs to be shown to have therapeutic effects - Reduces the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions (optimizing health) Examples… - Basic foods (salmon) - Processed foods with added ingredients (yogurt w/ plant sterols = added effects beyond basic yogurt) - Foods biologically enhanced = more functional components (omega-3 enriched eggs) Nutraceutical A product isolated/purified from foods  “bioactive isolates” - Has physiological benefits - Provides protection against chronic disease - Ie. In pill form Bio-active substance Like a nutraceutical but it’s the actual material in functional foods that has the bio-activity which makes it functional - Favourable effect on health - Includes nutrients, non-nutrient foods, and other substances with medicinal properties from non-food sources - Ie. Vitamins, minerals, probiotics Natural Health Products Naturally occurring substances, homeopathic medicines, traditional (NHP’s) medicines… - Provide pharmacological activity such as… o ie. Diagnosing / treating / preventing disease o ie. Restoring / modifying organic functions - Restore or maintain good health - ie. Capsules, solutions, creams, ointments, drops So, they are bioactive substances AND nutraceuticals “Dietary Supplements” US term for “NHP” in Canada - Contains a “dietary ingredient” intended to supplement diets - Ie. Vitamins, minerals, herbs, capsules, liquids, tablets - Ie. Extracts, concentrates “Non-nutrient” NHP’s Non-food sources - ie. Bark, leaves, stems, roots, microbes - ie. Shampoo Functional Food Determined by Dose & Individual Classification - Functional Food: Needs to be shown to have therapeutic effects o Reduces the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions (optimizing health) - Ie. Old man with pre-existing CVD vs. young boy (both eating fatty fish at the same dose) = fatty fish is a functional food for the old man Challenges to Eating “Functionally” Dietary Variation Need to eat lots to get up to the recommendations - One of the reasons why people just take supplements (convenience in variation) Variation of Bioactive Foods can have lots of natural variation Compounds Driving Forces Consumer - More interested in their own health - What’s more convenient? Popular? - Multi-culturalism (traditional medicines) - Demographics Producer New technology = more competition = profit Researcher Scientific support (or not) Government Health care costs Regulations Food & Drug Regulations - Foods (including some functional foods) - Drugs Natural Health Product - Nutraceuticals Regulations - Other NHP’s Food vs. Natural Health Product? A food… - Provides nourishment / nutrition / hydration = satisfy hunger / thirst / desire for taste, texture, or flavor - Has historical pattern of use as a food (or public perception as a food) NHP’s… - Sold in a form that enables dosing - Has historical pattern of therapeutic use (or public perception as therapeutic) Food-like NHP’s - Food contains a substance listed in the NHP regulations at a level that isn’t permitted in food (under the F&D regulations) - Makes a claim for therapeutic use that isn’t permitted to be made for a food (under the F&D regulations) - Has added ingredients with no food purpose - Has a food ingredient at a level incompatible with use as a food Examples - Juices, waters, energy drinks, protein bars - Soups, teas, gums Food Claims – Health Canada Nutrition Facts Table - Mandatory on most prepackages foods when there claims or declarations Nutrient Content Claim - Describe the levels of a recognized nutrient in a food o Ie. Reduced, High, Good source, etc Quantitative Declaration Quantitative statements / expressions about food constituents that of non-nutrients aren’t recognized nutrients (ie. Outside the Nutrition Facts Table) Nutrient Function Claim Claims about established roles for energy or recognized nutrients essential for maintenance of good health or normal growth and development Food Health Claim Options Food Claims Express composition, quality, quantity or origin of a food product - Ie. No preservatives, No MSG, Natural, etc General Health Claims Broad claims that promote health through healthy eating or provide dietary guidance 2 general nutrient function claims permissible for all nutrients: “…a factor in the maintenance of good health” “…a factor in normal growth and development” - Don’t refer to a specific or general health effect, disease or health condition - There aren’t specific regulations governing use of “healthy choice” claims BUT they can’t be false/misleading Function Claims Claims (like probiotic claims) about maintaining or supporting body functions associated with the maintenance of good health of performance - ie. Promotes regularity, antioxidant capacity, Provides live microorganisms that naturally form part of the gut flora, contributes to healthy gut flora Disease Risk Reduction Claims that link a food or food constituent to reducing risk of a diet- Claims related disease or condition - ie. a healthy in diet low in sodium and high in potassium and reduced risk of high blood pressure - ie. a health diet rich in vegetables and fruit and reduced risk od some types of cancer Therapeutic Claims Claims about treatment or alleviation of a disease/health-related condition, or restoring/correcting a body function - ie. plant sterols and blood cholesterol lowering Natural Health Product General Claims Claims - Low therapeutic impact - Source of…, Provides…, Supports…, Maintains…, Promotes… Health Effect Claims - Major/serious disease/condition - Prevention, risk reduction, treatment, cure NHP Product Licensing All products must undergo pre-market review to obtain a product license and corresponding natural product # (NPN) or Drug ID # for homeopathics - Some products have been granted exemption #’s until they complete the review process - Health Canada keeps a searchable database of licensed and exempted products Product Specific Claim Health Canada prefers to approve claims that are product specific, than to generalize to a category of products - Products vary in dosages = proven effects for one product doesn’t mean other products are ok - Product-specific claims generally fall into the “reduction…” category - Ie. Cold-FX  “helps reduce the frequency, severity and duration of cold and flu symptoms by boosting the immune system Popular Marketing Front of Package Labeling = implied health claim Technique Novel Foods Novel Food Definition A substance (including a microorganism) that doesn’t have history of safe use as a food - Manufactured, prepared, preserved or packaged by a process that: o Hasn’t been previously applied to that food o Causes the food to undergo a major change - Derived from a plant/animal/microorganism that has been genetically modified Major changes to the A change that (based on the manufacturer’s experience or generally definition… accepted nutritional/food science theory) places food outside the accepted limits of natural variations for that food with regard to: - The composition/structure/nutritional quality or its physiological effect - The manner in which the food is metabolized - The microbiological or chemical safety or the safe use of the food Examples - Ready-to-eat meat products treated with high hydrostatic pressure to control bacteria - Unpasteurized apple cider processed with UV light to kill bacteria - Substances traditionally consumed by isolated populations Regulation of Novel Foods - Pre-marketing notification o Notification to the Health Products and Food Branch is required before marketing/advertising a novel food - Pre-submission consultation o For novel foods and feeds derived from plants - Guidelines for the Safety Assessment of Novel Foods - List of Approved Products / Novel Food Decisions Health Claims (part 2) International Considerations United States Food - Ordinary foods - Some functional foods Dietary Supplements - Some functional foods - Nutraceuticals / NHP’s Drugs - Pharmaceuticals - Minimal nutraceuticals / NHP’s Nutrition Labeling Education Act Gives the FDA the authority to regulate food labeling - Ingredients list (including allergens)  listing of each in descending order or predominance - Nutrition labeling (must include calories, fat, sodium) - Claims (health claims must meet FDA approval) Claim Categories Structure / Function Describe the effect of a dietary supplement on the structure/function of the body - Don’t require pre-approval by the FDA before being used on labels, but must be truthful and not misleading - Must have a disclaimer (ie. This statement hasn’t been evaluated by the FDA not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease) Health Describe a relation between a food/food component/dietary supplement ingredient and reducing risk of a disease or health- related condition - In Canada: we call these “Disease Reduction” or “therapeutic” health claims - Require pre-approval by the FDA before being used on labels - US has more approved health claims than Canada Dietary Supplement Dietary supplements considered as a category separate from food Health and Education and drugs = have their own regulations Act - Product safety or effectiveness doesn’t have to be (DSHEA) demonstrated before the product enters the market - FDA: handles proof of safety - Manufacturers must report to the FDA any serious adverse events potentially associated with their products Good Manufacturing Ensures: Practices (GMPs) - Product labeled properly with ingredients identified - Product is free of contaminants or impurities - Strength/potency of product is a claimed - Doesn’t require proof of efficacy CODEX Develop food standards and guidelines - protect health of consumers - ensure fair trade, coordination of food standards European Union - Nutrient function claims - Other function aka “enhanced” function claims - Disease reduction claims Japan Functional food - FOSHU regulations Nutraceutical - Drugs FOSHU Foods for Specified Health Use - Foods have ingredients with functions for health - Officially approved to make health claims - Intended to be consumed for the maintenance/promotion of health or special health uses to control health conditions - Required thorough assessment for safety and effectiveness of the functions for health 8 Groups of FOSHU GI Conditions Health Claims - Products claim they help maintain a healthful GI condition Blood Pressure - Products claim they are suitable for people with moderately high blood pressure Serum Cholesterol - Products claim they help decrease serum cholesterol levels Blood Glucose - Products claim they are helpful to those concerned about blood glucose levels Absorption of Minerals - Products claim they improve absorption of calcium or help to control mild iron-deficiency anemia Blood Neutral Fat - Products claim they make it difficult for fat to “cling to the body” Dental Health - Product claim they are low or non-cariogenic, or they aid in making strong and healthy teeth Bone Health - Product claim they promote bone calcification Australia & New Zealand Health Claims on Foods - Currently minimal - Allowed claims: o Nutrition claims (ie. This food is high in fibre) o Health maintenance claims (ie. Maintains good health) - Current legislation allows: o Nutrition content claims (nutrient content claims) o General level health claims (structure/function claims) o High level claims (health claims like sodium and hypertension, calcium and osteoporosis, omega-3 fatty
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