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FOOD 3090 Study Guide - Food Microbiology, Food Preservation, Water Activity

Food Science
Course Code
FOOD 3090

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Nutrient Digestion and Utilization - Lecture 1 and 2
1. Distinguish between the terms: food, nutrient, and nutraceutical.
2. What are the differences between and the origins of hunger and appetite.
3. What do we mean by the term satiety in the context of food consumption, and why is it an important concept to study?
4. List the regions of the digestive tract and indicate their functions (Note: you should also be able to recognize each of these organs on an anatomical diagram of the body).
5. Why is digested food first acidified in the stomach and then neutralized in the small intestine?
6. How do pepsin and trypsin differ?
7. Why does a high fat meal leave a feeling of satiety longer than a high carbohydrate meal?
8. Describe the roles of the liver, gall bladder, pancreas and kidney as they relate to digestion and assimilation.
9. Lipids and sugars are absorbed differently by the body. Why?
10. Describe the fate of lipids, sugars and amino acids after ingestion.
11. Why does a high protein meal put more load on the kidneys than a high fat meal?
Eating Right - Lecture 2 and 3
1. When we discuss "optimal" nutrient intakes, what are we "optimizing" for? How difficult are each of these goals to achieve?
2. How many servings of each of the four food groups in Canada's Food Guide should YOU consume?
3. What are some of the main "eating right" messages of Health Canada?
4. Why recommend to Canadians that they should choose a variety of foods from each food group each day?
5. What is meant by the "metabolic syndrome"?
6. What is the definition of EAR, RDA and AI? How are the numbers determined and by whom?
7. How is the % daily value on the Nutrition Facts table calculated?
8. How is the energy content of a food serving, which is declared on a food label, calculated?
9. How many kCal or MJ would be derived from a meal consisting of 600 g, 10% fat, 15% protein, 15% digestible carbohydrate, 10% non-digestible carbohydrate and 50%
10. What does (the abbreviation) BMR mean and what is it?
11.What does EER mean and what is it? What is your EER?
12. What does BMI mean and what is it? How is it calculated? In terms of BMI, what is considered normal? Obese? What is your BMI?
13. Why are health professionals concerned about obesity?
14. Why do you think obesity has become an epidemic? Think of all the contributing factors. As a society, what can we do about it?
(Note: please have a look at Controversy 11, Sizer et al., pp. 490-5 (3rd ed.) or 446-51 (2nd ed.); also Fig. 9-10, p. 378 (3rd ed.), 342 (2nd ed.), Hunger, Appetite, Satiation
and Satiety).
Food Microbiology and Food Safety - Lecture 5
1. What are the definition and goals of food preservation?
2. What role do microorganisms play in foods (good and bad)? Give two examples of each category.
3. In order to grow, microorganisms need several factors. What are they and why is this of significance to food preservation?
4. Which category of bacteria grow in refrigerated foods? Why is this of significance to food preservation?
5. How can our food supply become contaminated with human pathogens? Give several examples.
6. When we talk about foodborne illness, what is the difference between an incident and a case?
7. Why are large food manufacturers so concerned about microbial foodborne illness? (think about this in the context of the previous question)
8. What is the difference between a food infection and a food intoxication? Which one would be easier to detect the cause of? Why? Name at least two examples of the
causative agents of each.
9. What good manufacturing practices (GMP) can a food processor take to ensure freedom from pathogenic contamination with a food product?
10. What are the main components of a HACCP system?
Food Preservation by Thermal Processing - Lecture 6
1. What are the goals of thermal processing of food in general? What are the specific goals of each of blanching, pasteurization and sterilization?
2. What is the primary difference between the processing of aseptic "drinking box" type products and canned products?
3. Why is Clostridium botulinum such a large concern to food canners?
4. Why would a food canner need to blanch vegetable products before packaging, considering the thermal treatment they are about to receive?
5. Typically, it is much more difficult to can vegetables than fruits. Why?
6. If a food product has a starting microorganism count of 600,000/g, a D70 value of 50 minutes, a Z value of 4oC and it is processed at 82oC for 15 seconds, how many
microorganisms would be left? (I will provide the answer later – if I forget, please remind me).
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