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FOOD 4090 Study Guide - Final Guide: Insulin Resistance, Enteric Coating, Homeopathy


Food Science
Course Code
FOOD 4090
Doug Goff
Study Guide

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Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals & Health Claims (part 1)
Any nutritious substance that people eat or drink to maintain life and
Optimal Nutrient Intake
We want to eat and behave in such a way that we’re not inly healthy but
healthier for longer in the future
- Prevent deficiencies
- Maintain healthy weights
- Optimize health & Delay degenerative diseases
Metabolic Syndrome
Combination of factors that greatly increases risk of developing CVD
- High fasting
- Blood glucose / insulin resistance
- Central obesity
- Hypertension
- Low blood HDL cholesterol
- Elevated blood triglycerides
Reductionist theory
- Foods are the sum of their nutrient parts
Functional Food
Similar in appearance to (or may be) a conventional food consumed
as part of a usual diet
- Has physiological benefits
- Needs to be shown to have therapeutic effects
- Reduces the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional
functions (optimizing health)
- Basic foods (salmon)
- Processed foods with added ingredients
(yogurt w/ plant sterols = added effects beyond basic yogurt)
- Foods biologically enhanced = more functional components
(omega-3 enriched eggs)
A product isolated/purified from foods “bioactive isolates”
- Has physiological benefits
- Provides protection against chronic disease
- Ie. In pill form
Bio-active substance
Like a nutraceutical but it’s the actual material in functional foods that

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has the bio-activity which makes it functional
- Favourable effect on health
- Includes nutrients, non-nutrient foods, and other substances with
medicinal properties from non-food sources
- Ie. Vitamins, minerals, probiotics
Natural Health Products
Naturally occurring substances, homeopathic medicines, traditional
- Provide pharmacological activity such as…
o ie. Diagnosing / treating / preventing disease
o ie. Restoring / modifying organic functions
- Restore or maintain good health
- ie. Capsules, solutions, creams, ointments, drops
So, they are bioactive substances AND nutraceuticals
Dietary Supplements
US term for NHP in Canada
- Contains a “dietary ingredient” intended to supplement diets
- Ie. Vitamins, minerals, herbs, capsules, liquids, tablets
- Ie. Extracts, concentrates
“Non-nutrient” NHP’s
Non-food sources
- ie. Bark, leaves, stems, roots, microbes
- ie. Shampoo
Functional Food
Determined by Dose & Individual
- Functional Food: Needs to be shown to have therapeutic effects
o Reduces the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional
functions (optimizing health)
- Ie. Old man with pre-existing CVD vs. young boy (both eating fatty
fish at the same dose) = fatty fish is a functional food for the old
Challenges to Eating “Functionally”
Dietary Variation
Need to eat lots to get up to the recommendations
- One of the reasons why people just take supplements
(convenience in variation)
Variation of Bioactive
Foods can have lots of natural variation

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Driving Forces
- More interested in their own health
- What’s more convenient? Popular?
- Multi-culturalism (traditional medicines)
- Demographics
New technology = more competition = profit
Scientific support (or not)
Health care costs
Food & Drug Regulations
- Foods (including some functional foods)
- Drugs
Natural Health Product
- Nutraceuticals
- Other NHP’s
Food vs. Natural Health Product?
A food…
- Provides nourishment / nutrition / hydration
= satisfy hunger / thirst / desire for taste, texture, or flavor
- Has historical pattern of use as a food (or public perception as a
- Sold in a form that enables dosing
- Has historical pattern of therapeutic use (or public perception as
Food-like NHP’s
- Food contains a substance listed in the NHP regulations at a
level that isn’t permitted in food (under the F&D regulations)
- Makes a claim for therapeutic use that isn’t permitted to be
made for a food (under the F&D regulations)
- Has added ingredients with no food purpose
- Has a food ingredient at a level incompatible with use as a
- Juices, waters, energy drinks, protein bars
- Soups, teas, gums
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