FOOD 4090 Study Guide - Final Guide: Insulin Resistance, Enteric Coating, Homeopathy

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Published on 17 Apr 2013
School
University of Guelph
Department
Food Science
Course
FOOD 4090
Professor
Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals & Health Claims (part 1)
Food
Any nutritious substance that people eat or drink to maintain life and
growth
Optimal Nutrient Intake
We want to eat and behave in such a way that we’re not inly healthy but
healthier for longer in the future
- Prevent deficiencies
- Maintain healthy weights
- Optimize health & Delay degenerative diseases
Metabolic Syndrome
Combination of factors that greatly increases risk of developing CVD
- High fasting
- Blood glucose / insulin resistance
- Central obesity
- Hypertension
- Low blood HDL cholesterol
- Elevated blood triglycerides
Nutritionism
Reductionist theory
- Foods are the sum of their nutrient parts
Functional Food
Similar in appearance to (or may be) a conventional food consumed
as part of a usual diet
- Has physiological benefits
- Needs to be shown to have therapeutic effects
- Reduces the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional
functions (optimizing health)
Examples
- Basic foods (salmon)
- Processed foods with added ingredients
(yogurt w/ plant sterols = added effects beyond basic yogurt)
- Foods biologically enhanced = more functional components
(omega-3 enriched eggs)
Nutraceutical
A product isolated/purified from foods “bioactive isolates”
- Has physiological benefits
- Provides protection against chronic disease
- Ie. In pill form
Bio-active substance
Like a nutraceutical but it’s the actual material in functional foods that
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has the bio-activity which makes it functional
- Favourable effect on health
- Includes nutrients, non-nutrient foods, and other substances with
medicinal properties from non-food sources
- Ie. Vitamins, minerals, probiotics
Natural Health Products
(NHPs)
Naturally occurring substances, homeopathic medicines, traditional
medicines
- Provide pharmacological activity such as…
o ie. Diagnosing / treating / preventing disease
o ie. Restoring / modifying organic functions
- Restore or maintain good health
- ie. Capsules, solutions, creams, ointments, drops
So, they are bioactive substances AND nutraceuticals
Dietary Supplements
US term for NHP in Canada
- Contains a “dietary ingredient” intended to supplement diets
- Ie. Vitamins, minerals, herbs, capsules, liquids, tablets
- Ie. Extracts, concentrates
“Non-nutrient” NHP’s
Non-food sources
- ie. Bark, leaves, stems, roots, microbes
- ie. Shampoo
Functional Food
Classification
Determined by Dose & Individual
- Functional Food: Needs to be shown to have therapeutic effects
o Reduces the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional
functions (optimizing health)
- Ie. Old man with pre-existing CVD vs. young boy (both eating fatty
fish at the same dose) = fatty fish is a functional food for the old
man
Challenges to Eating “Functionally”
Dietary Variation
Need to eat lots to get up to the recommendations
- One of the reasons why people just take supplements
(convenience in variation)
Variation of Bioactive
Compounds
Foods can have lots of natural variation
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Driving Forces
Consumer
- More interested in their own health
- What’s more convenient? Popular?
- Multi-culturalism (traditional medicines)
- Demographics
Producer
New technology = more competition = profit
Researcher
Scientific support (or not)
Government
Health care costs
Regulations
Food & Drug Regulations
- Foods (including some functional foods)
- Drugs
Natural Health Product
Regulations
- Nutraceuticals
- Other NHP’s
Food vs. Natural Health Product?
A food…
- Provides nourishment / nutrition / hydration
= satisfy hunger / thirst / desire for taste, texture, or flavor
- Has historical pattern of use as a food (or public perception as a
food)
NHP’s…
- Sold in a form that enables dosing
- Has historical pattern of therapeutic use (or public perception as
therapeutic)
Food-like NHP’s
- Food contains a substance listed in the NHP regulations at a
level that isn’t permitted in food (under the F&D regulations)
- Makes a claim for therapeutic use that isn’t permitted to be
made for a food (under the F&D regulations)
- Has added ingredients with no food purpose
- Has a food ingredient at a level incompatible with use as a
food
Examples
- Juices, waters, energy drinks, protein bars
- Soups, teas, gums
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Document Summary

Functional foods and nutraceuticals & health claims (part 1) Any nutritious substance that people eat or drink to maintain life and growth. Optimal nutrient intake we want to eat and behave in such a way that we"re not inly healthy but healthier for longer in the future. Combination of factors that greatly increases risk of developing cvd. Foods are the sum of their nutrient parts. Similar in appearance to (or may be) a conventional food consumed as part of a usual diet. Needs to be shown to have therapeutic effects. Reduces the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions (optimizing health) Processed foods with added ingredients (yogurt w/ plant sterols = added effects beyond basic yogurt) Foods biologically enhanced = more functional components (omega-3 enriched eggs) A product isolated/purified from foods bioactive isolates . Like a nutraceutical but it"s the actual material in functional foods that has the bio-activity which makes it functional.

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