FRHD 3150 Study Guide - Final Guide: Positive Behavior Support, Placemat, Intellectual Disability

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Punisher [aversive stimuli]
- immediate consequence of an operant behavior
- causes that behavior to decrease
- once an event has been determines to function as a punisher
- that event can be used to decrease other operant behaviors in other situations
- this is the principle of punishment
-person is less likely to do the same thing [that was followed by a punisher] in a
similar situation
Punishment in context for B.M
1) occurs immediately after problem behavior
2) it is not a form of moral sanction, vengeance, or retribution
3) not used to deter others from engaging in the target behavior
- punishment in context everyday culture: sending a person to prison
- not immediate
- many people believe it is a form of retribution/they deserve it
- it is used a deterrent to other people
Like positive reinforcement, punishment affects our learning throughout life
- touching a hot stove – immediate consequence
Types of Punishers
(a) pain-inducing punisher, (b) reprimand, (c) timeout, and (d) response cost.
- there is overlap between these
Physical Punishers (P.P)
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- most common type of P.P
- stimuli that activate pain receptors [nociceptors]
- nerve endings
- detect pressure, temp changes, etc
- spanking, extreme cold/heat, very loud sounds, electric shocks
- these are unconditioned punishers
- stimuli that are punishing
- without prior learning
- other stimuli can be punishing without prior learning but they do not involve the nociceptrors
[bad smells & tastes]
Reprimand
- strong negative verbal stimulus
“ No! That was bad!”
- include a fixed stare, sometimes, a firm grasp
conditioned punisher
- stimulus that is a punisher as a result of having been paired with another punisher
I.e. the verbal component of a reprimand conditioned punisher
- other components, a firm grasp, are unconditioned punishers
I.e. paired reprimands with a water-mist spray to suppress self-injurious behavior in individuals with
developmental disabilities
Timeout
- period of time immediately following a particular behavior during which an individual loses the
opportunity to earn reinforcers
2 types:
exclusionary timeout
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- removing an individual briefly [4-5 mins] from a reinforcing situation
- immediately following a behavior
- often a special room, a timeout room, is used for this purpose
- bare of anything that might serve as a reinforcer
nonexclusionary timeout
- introducing a stimulus associated with less reinforcement immediately following a behavior
- Children in a classroom wore a ribbon that was removed for a short time when a child was disruptive.
When not wearing the ribbon, the child was not allowed to participate in classroom activities and was
ignored by the teacher.
Response Cost
- removal of a specified amount of a reinforcer
- sometimes used in behavior modification programs in which learners earn tokens as reinforcers
- loss of tokens for off-task behavior successfully decreased it
- response cost differs from timeout
- when response cost is administered - individual does not temporarily lose the opportunity to
earn reinforcers
- also not extinction
- extinction procedure - reinforcer is withheld following a previously reinforced response **
- response cost - reinforcer is taken away following an undesirable response
Examples of R.C
- library fines, traffic tickets
- these punishers are not applied immediately following bad behaviour though
Direct-acting effect of punishment
- the decreased frequency of a response due to immediate punishing consequences
Indirect-acting effect
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