HIST 2040 Study Guide - Final Guide: Maginot Line, First Geneva Convention, Warsaw Pact

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10 Aug 2016
War and Society Exam Terms
Week 1:
Military Revolution Theory (1955):
Who Michael Reoberts
Where Focus on Sweden
When 1955
What Refers to a radical change in military strategy and tactics with resulting major changes in
Significance linked military technology with larger historical consequences, arguing that
innovation tactics, drill and doctrine by the Dutch and Swedes 1550-1660, which maximized the
utility of firearms, led to a need for more trained troops and thus for permanent forces; the
modern art of war was made possible and necessary the creation of the modern state
Revolutions in Military Affairs RMAs (1980s):
Who posited by Soviet Marshal Nikolai Ogarkov and shaped by the Marxist-Leninist
revolutionary ideology
Where Russia?
When 1980s
What the need to explain technological changes shaping warfare, notably rapidly changing
developments associated with nuclear weapons; examination of Russian and Soviet history for
clues to military development, ability of Soviets to overcome enemies from Whites in the Civil War
to the Nazis; address the problem of precision-guided munitions, notably cruise missiles and
eventually stealth technology
Significance the “military-technical revolution” had to be understood and understood quickly,
because the impact could be devastating for military planners whose job it was to find counter-
measures against these new weapons; “military-technical revolution” broadened to “revolutions in
military affairs”, which could be used to explain significant changes within military revolutions
Marshal Nikolai Ogarkov:
Who Marshal Nikolai Ogarkov, the Soviet chief of staff in the 1980s
Where Russia
When 1917-1994
What Strong advocate for reconstructing the huge, unwieldy Soviet military machine into a
smaller, more compact strike force based around advanced technology; fundamental changes
needed to be made to the Soviet socioeconomic status quo; ran afoul of army officers who
believed in a more traditional WWII style of warfare; vision for modernizing the Soviet military
Significance first Soviet military leader who realized that the gap in technology had gotten so
side that they could not catch up, so they gave up
Military-Technical Revolution:
Who Eurpoean states and others
Where Europe
When started in 1500s and is continuing throughout history
What gunpowder; the military technical revolution was the original name for the revolution in
military affairs
Significance it was brought it to explain significant changes that occurred with new technology
being brought in to fight in warfare and completely changed the way that warfare was fought
Military Revolution Two French Revolution:
Who French
Where France
When late 18th and early 19th Centuries
What French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars
Significance Merging of mass politics and warfare
Military Revolution Three Industrial Revolution:
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War and Society Exam Terms
Who Started in Britain and spread to Europe from there
Where Europe
When late 18th late (1700’s) and early 19th centuries
What Industrial Revolution; rural societies in Europe became industrial and urban;
industrialization marked a shift to powered, special-purpose machinery, factories amd mass
production; the iron and textile industries, along with the development of the steam engine,
played central roles in the Industrial Revolution, which also saw improved systems of
transportation, communication, and banking
Significance industrial revolution made it possible to arm, clothe, feed, pay and swiftly move
Military Revolution 4 World War I:
Who France, British Empire, Russia, Italy, United States, Canada, Germany, Austria-Hungary,
Ottoman Empire, etc
Where Europe, Africa, the Middle East, the Pacific Islands, China and off the coast of South
and North America
When 1914-1918
What World War I; the seemingly small conflict between two countries spread rapidly and
eventually turned into the first world war
Significance Bringing together advances from the revolutions 2 and 3 establishes patterns for
20th century war; major armies, now numbering millions of men, had modernized and were
making use of telephone, wireless communication, armored cars, tanks, and aircraft
Military Revolution 5 Nuclear Weapons:
Who Russia and U.S.A.
Where Russia and U.S.A.
When 1945-1990 ish
What Nuclear Weapons; cold war
Significance advent of nuclear weapons kept Cold War cold
Military Revolution 1 Seventeenth Century RMAs:
Who Dutch, Swedish, French, and British
Where Europe
When Early Modern 17th century; mid-to-late 18th century
What Dutch and Swedish tactical reforms; French tactical organizational reforms; naval
reforms; British financial revolution; French military reforms
Significance the concept of a military revolution based on technology has given way to models
based more on a slow evolution in which technology plays a minor role to organization, command
and control, logistics, and in general non-material improvements. The revolutionary nature of
these changes was only visible after a long evaluation that handed Europe a predominant place
in warfare, a place that the industrial revolution would confirm
Military Revolution 2 and 3 French Revolution and Industrial Revolution RMAs:
Who French / British
Where France / Europe
When late 18th and early 19th centuries
What national political and economic mobilization; Napoleonic warfare annihilation of enemy;
financial and economic power based on industrialization (Britain); technological revolution in land
warfare and transport (telegraph, railroad, steamships, quick-firing smokeless powder small arms
and artillery and artillery, automatic weapons); fisher revolution in naval warfare all the big-gun
battleships and battle fleet
Military Revolution 4 The First World War (RMAs combines three predecessors):
Who Europe
Where Europe
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War and Society Exam Terms
When 1914-1918
What World War I
Significance combined arms tactics and operations, Blitzkrieg operations, strategic bombing,
carrier warfare, submarine warfare, amphibious warfare, radar, signals intelligence
Military Revolution 5 Nuclear Weapons RMAs:
What nuclear weapons
Significance precision reconnaissance and strike; stealth technology; computerization and
computer networking of command and control; massively increased lethality of “conventional
munitions”; drone and cyber warfare
Popular-Conscript Army
Who Paradigm army; French
Where France
When 1789-1810
What the introduction of the levee en masse, mobilized the French state for war, and it
conscripted forces
Significance officers rise through ranks based on merit; the improvements in weaponry,
particularly artillery in the late 18th century; numbered increased and they were used much more
effectively in Napoleonic wars; greater tactical freedom, divisional system, and greater freedom
for troops; greater mobility, armies no struck much further into foreign territory than had been the
case in the last three centuries
Week 2:
Who European states
Where Europe
When 1170-1220
What a code of conduct associated with the medieval institution of knighthood; the code of
chivalry that developed in medieval Europe had its roots in earlier centuries
Significance involved military bravery, individual training, and service to others; meaning has
been refined to emphasize social and moral virtues; system by which combined a warrior ethic,
knightly piety, and courtly manners, all conspiring to establish a notion of honour and nobility
Siege Warfare:
Who Middle East and Europe
Where Europe
When first used 1338 in Cambrai but popular in Middle Ages
What a medieval military operation involving the surrounding and blockading of a town, castle
or fortress by an army in the attempt to capture it; form of constant, low-intensity conflict
characterized by one party holding a strong, strategic defensive position
Significance the quest for power led to invasions of lands and territories, which had to be fought
for; Medieval times was the era when the great castles were built acting as a power for the Kings,
Lords, and knights and a new type of warfare called Siege Warfare was wages to win a castle or
walled town or city
Gunpowder Weaponry:
Who invented by Chinese
Where Worldwide
When first used in 1346
What an explosive consisting of a powdered mixture of saltpeter, sulfur, and charcoal
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