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Midterm

HIST3130 Midterm: Second Midterm Review
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Department
History
Course Code
HIST 3130
Professor
Linda Mahood

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HIST*3130 MIDTERM 2 OUTLINE The Verdict: Expertise, Certainty, and Partisanship  Medical experts were rarely biased in court because they were professional and didn’t want to sabotage their reputations, elite doctors stayed away from participating in court cases  When experts were biased, court was hostile to them and they were disregarded as good evidence  Judges liked when experts provided experiments to prove higher certainty (ex. Infanticide: put baby in water, if it floats it had air in its lungs, determining it was alive at one point)  Increased emphasis on certainty bc: 1. growing insistence on proof beyond reasonable doubt – heightened burden in order to convict 2. devaluation of estimated worth of direct testimony – reasons for this devaluation include awareness of monetary/penal inducements to false testimony Professional Authority (Physicians, Apothecary, Midwife, Judges)  Physicians – doctors denigrated the work done by women in asylum management and administration in order to upgrade the status of the psychiatric profession  Matrons and female nurses and attendants were paid on a much lower scale than male workers, were regarded as less reliable, and were subject to more rules and restrictions  Any establishment licensed to receive lunatics had to be visited regularly by (male) physician  9 psychiatrists testified in case of Daniel M’Naughten, some for prosecution, some for defence  29 y/o Scottish labourer, arrested for firing bullet in back of Robert Drummond who he believed was Sir Robert Peel... delusional about gov trying to steal his property & turn friends against him Defense: killed Drummond in light of day without escape plan Crown: must be sane because he had a successful woodworking business Judge & jury returned after 2 minutes and found M’Naughten not guilty by reason of insanity  Demonstrated the persuasiveness of psychiatric testimony  Apothecary/early pharmacists experimented with drugs & herbs on people with distemperment  Was not regulated, but people would go to apothecary for treatment before going to a physician  Midwife – by advocating medical monopoly of treatment of the insane, women were forced into marginal, secondary, or charitable roles, (as rising profession of obstetrics demoted midwifery)  Commissioners of Lunacy Report, 1859: considered granting new licenses only to medical men  Women applicants were thereafter discouraged, although not always refused  Judges – during latter half of 18 century, judges had relinquished the role of inquisitor and parties had become ever more clearly responsible for production and questioning of witnesses Lunatics Act, 1845  Required all counties to provide adequate asylum accommodation for pauper lunatics, defined as persons whose maintenance came wholly or in part from public funds  Paupers were usually sent to the workhouse, to public hospitals such as Bedlam, or to private madhouses in which conditions were appalling and treatment was notoriously cruel  Wealthy patients were often cared for at home or in the more luxurious private madhouses  Significance: Transformed institutional care of the insane (changed status of the mentally ill to patients) Along with County Asylums Act, formed mental health law in England and Wales Implemented the incarceration of the insane model Confusion when dealing with insane children, was no age limit on who admitted into asylums Commission on Lunatic Asylums  As late as 1844, the Commissioners in Lunacy found lunatics confined in dark and reeking cells, strapped down to their beds or to chairs  Visitors to Bedlam paid their pennies to see howling maniacs, naked and chained, alien creatures in whom irrationality and filth had reached the extremes of the recognizably human  Commission meant to: Monitor conditions in the asylums & treatment of patients Monitor treatment/mental state of patients who couldn't be removed from prisons/workhouses Mania and Melancholia  Women were often diagnosed with “mania” and “melancholia” (sickly & sickening)  These were considered mental disorders, and they were sent to asylums  Mania = mental disorder - periods of excitement, euphoria, delusions, over-activity  Melancholia = deep sadness, depression “Predisposition for Derangement”  Women were naturally predisposed to madness  Psychology of the ovary: women controlled by their ovaries from cradle to grave, (men by brain)  Women had to conserve energy during puberty to avoid ill effects, should not receive education because excessive studying would stress ovaries causing flat chested-ness & unattractiveness  Nymphomania: women who experiences too many climaxes  Magdalenism: young girls who hung out with boys and defied parental authority  Lactation insanity: women who produced too much breast milk after childbirth  Perpetual insanity: what is referred to today as postpartum depression  Menopause climacteric insanity: women undergoing menopause that were in love w/ young men  Old Maid’s Mania: woman’s unrequited love for a clergyman  Significance: Insanity linked to uterus – women who acted outside of norm often labeled “mad” Madness was gendered, women subjected to more medical diagnoses than men on the basis of their sex and the gender norms of the time (all illnesses listed above only applied to women) Isaac Baker Brown, Obstetrical Society of London  Brown practised clitoridectomy (surgical removal of clitoris) as cure for female insanity  All cases of female insanity (except alcoholism/hereditary) were “failures of nervous power” produced by “peripheral irritation arising in branches of pubic nerve, particularly the clitoris”  Brown was convinced that masturbation was primary cause of madness, assumed it made women unwilling to fulfill conjugal obligations, & symptoms of female insanity manifested at puberty  First operation 1859, removed clitoris of 26 y/o unwed dressmaker who suffered digestive issues  Brown urged clitoridectomy for women seeking divorce (make them more contented/manageable)  In 1860s, Brown's sexual surgery often went beyond clitoridectomy to the removal of labia too  Significance: Because of Brown’s unfortunate obsession, sexual surgery was ultimately less frequently practised in nineteenth-century England than in France, Germany, or the United States, where the last recorded clitoridectomy took place in 1924 Vladimir vs. Dr. Ross  Bridgewater State Hospital for the criminally insane  Vladimir has been transferred from Boston prison to a mental health facility for observation and is convinced that Bridgewater is making him ill and begs to be transferred back to the prison  Dr. Ross is convinced that if Vladimir is sent back to prison today, Vladimir would be sent back to Bridgewater today or tomorrow  Vladimir fights experts (parole board, prison director, guard, psychiatrist, doctor, social worker)  Diagnosis – although Vladimir may be improving, best thing to do is to increase his medication  Significance: Foucault: Reason goes to prison and unreason goes to the asylum Asylums implemented total surveillance and judgment Moral authority of psychiatrist reigns supreme, solidified the absolute authority of psychiatrist Royal Company of Barbers and Surgeons  1541 precedent established: grant which provided for the right of the Royal Company of Barbers and Surgeons annually to dissect four executed felons  1752 murder act: intended to deter capital crime… murder becoming so perpetrated that some further terror had to be added to punishment of death, so this act freed up bodies to be dissected if they were unclaimed, leads to people hanging around hallows to collect the dead (for profit)  Barbers & surgeons considered similar occupation because both worked with scissors and knives  Low status occupation, but surgeons became associated with physicians and medical science  1540s, there was a struggle between barbers and surgeons for legitimacy and power  Surgeons gained legitimacy by being affiliated with medical science Body-Snatching  Experience dissecting became prerequisite to becoming doctor in Britain (before dissection was limited to demonstration in medical school), dissection = need for cadavers = profitable market  Med schools depend on tuition, tuition came from students who expected cadavers to practice on  Increasing competition for students quickly exhausted supply of cadavers provided by the assizes  Body snatchers were usually graveyard staff, dissecting room staff, med students & teachers (permission to exhume recently buried criminal was usually granted & not given much publicity)  Initially, illegal procurement of cadavers was neither well organized nor a large scale operation  Body snatcher methods simply involved bribing sexton for permission to exhume recently buried unclaimed pauper/criminal who usually was placed within 2-3 feet of ground surface (“poppers”)  Mob action to protect bodies grew in popularity due to the disgrace of anatomical dissection (unclaimed bodies being given to surgeons angered people as they believed strongly in the importance of a Christian burial, lead to Tyburn riot)  Internal structure of medical profession redone: top of hierarchy = Royal College of Physicians of London (not based on med knowledge but political favors), second = Surgeons/Physicians (most affected by cadaver shortage, rampant corruption, had to protect their professional status)  Significance: Fluctuations in system of illegal procurement alternatingly reduced/increased strain in relations between the government and the medical profession Murder Act, 1752  Passed by George II to deter capital crime by adding further terror to conviction of murderers  Freed up bodies of felons to be dissected by surgeons if unclaimed by family members/friends  Surgeons sometimes found it simpler to get bodies if their agents masqueraded as parents of the dead rather than try to insist upon their prerogatives by force of arms (fight for right of bodies)  Working class people were outraged, Christian burial was an important working class tradition  Murderers pending execution appealed to crowd to protect their bodies from disgraceful dissection  Reports of bungled executions where subject for dissection was actually alive, lead to Tyburn riot  Nullis in Bonis: legal recognition of no property in a corpse  Body-snatching was not seen as theft since the body did not have value as property or legal status  Offence was common law misdemeanour punishable by fine (& possibly brief imprisonment)  Bodies believed to be property of God, returned to Him in death (dissection = religious offence)  Significance  the act functioned to entrench further deep seated popular fears of dissection Anatomy Act, 1832  Body-snatching became a daring enterprise, attracted publicity, thus placed strain on magistrates  Critical point reached in 1831, two body-snatchers confessed to murdering a woman & child  The Act made provisions for cadavers unclaimed after 48 hours of death (no longer just murderers but also included collection of anyone who died in prisons or workhouses)  Introduced regulation of licensed teachers, & also inspectors of anatomy who kept tabs on bodies  More expensive anatomical laws the lesser of two evils, reform could take place without rebellion  Significance: Legal changes reflected an uneasy compromise when illegal cadaver system was not able to incorporate strain induced by transition from exhumation to murder as a means of procurement A.J. Munby  He was fascinated with working-class women, particularly those who did hard physical labour  Passion for collecting information on working class (particularly women) has streak of voyeurism  His observations were not commissioned by any official body nor intended for publication  Part of sexual attraction - working women w/ rough hands and large feet/boots  In his poetry, girls compared to domesticated animals who have been "trained/broken in" by man  Connections between class, gender (man/womanhood), and sexuality on the family structure  His position as dominating mid-class man allowed him to take girls to photographer to have her picture taken however he chose to pose her (economic necessity made his "wenches" so available)  Married his servant, Hannah… her relatives/friends accepted him while his middleclass circle, with the exception of two of his closest friends, never knew of her existence Walter, My Secret Life  “Walter”, anon author, came from much the same background as Munby (born mid-1820s) and also had obscure job in civil service which allowed him same time & freedom for his pursuit  Sexual fascination with forbidden working class, and wrote about his experiences in a diary  Walter concerned strictly sexual encounters, while Munby collected examples of women at work  Pattern of wandering from place to place in search of encounters, the emotional urgency and the sense of culmination with each ‘find’ lies below the surface of both Munby & “Walter’s” diaries  In his teens, he was inflamed with lust when maidservant had to kneel to take off his boots Criminal Law Amendment Act, 1885  During the late Victorian sex law period, when gay sex was frowned upon  Following Buggery Act and Offences Against the Persons Act  This law stated that “gross indecency” between men is now noncapital criminal offence  No death penalty for gay sex Policing Prostitution  Three ways prostitution is regulated: Laissez-faire (ignore it, turn a blind eye to it, don’t want to get involved) State regulation (government licensing, medical examination goes along with it, regulating it) Police repression (oppression harassment, harass them until they can’t make a living at all) Josephine Butler, Contagious Diseases Act  Josephine Butler is the Elizabeth Fry of the prostitution movement  Informed about Contagious Diseases Act, which permitted police to arrest suspected prostitutes and register them, she was thoroughly enraged  Following death of her daughter, she decided to advocate against state regulation of prostitution  Prostitution was an immoral double standard, “unconstitutional and unchristian”  Sexual access to working class woman was time honored prerogative of gentlemen  Access to prostitution would keep middle class women safe  Male purity reformers always found it more convenient to “let pressure fall almost exclusively on women” as it is “more difficult, they say, to get at men”  Josephine Butler and others expressed concern that the uproar over the Jack the Ripper murders would lead to the repression of brothels and subsequent homelessness of women “Outcast London”  Outcast London was the poverty stricken East end of London  West end London - fashionable, rich // East End London - poor, slums  Slum tours becomes fashionable pastime for rich to see things they don’t want to see in places they shouldn’t be… get to know poor, midnight excursions into large slums (White Chapel)  Inability for police to catch the killer or come up with any concrete leads  Jack The Ripper was seen as threat of Outcast London, killer targeted the outcast population (mainly prostitutes) of London that was most vulnerable and least able to be helped/protected Mercy and Magdalene  Women sent to Magdalene asylums if they had children out of wedlock, or sex prior to marriage  Some sent just for being ‘at risk’ (even if they did nothing, pretty girls who got male attention)  Even if they were victims of sexual abuse, like Martha, they were sent here  Were often shunned by community, an embarrassment, needed to repent  Women were forced to give their child up for adoption or to foster homes, try to keep it a secret  Had to work, pray, not show ANY skin or look good in any way (chop off hair if it was pretty)  Sexuality/sex was taught to them to be dirty, gross, repulsive, a sin to think of it even  Goals: create respectable women  Results: sexual abuse (by priests), physical abuse (beaten by nuns), mental abuse (called whores)  Women had troubles with intimacy after getting out - lots of divorces because of this Industrial School and Reformatory Act, 1868  1850s institutions were intervention into lives of urban poor in Scotland (vicious girls/s.c. boys)  Street youth both dangerous/in danger (Mary Carpenter observed ‘perishing’/‘dangerous’ classes)  New experts: cruelty man (volunteer for prevention of cruelty to children, almost seen as bad guy because they were always nosing around), magistrate, superintendent, and matron  Admission to these institutions usually proceeded on basis of magistrate/police recommendations, although directors had final say as to which girls and boys they chose to admit/reject  Juv
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