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Midterm

Darwin, Culture and Society Notes up until midterm- COMPLETE NOTES

20 Pages
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Department
History
Course Code
HIST 3690
Professor
Tara Abraham

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Darwin Culture and SocietyJanuary 12 2012European Colonial Expansion17tch SHIFT on viewing the natural worldCreating a context for natural history and setting a historical frameth It wasnt yes a scientific profession by late 18 C we start to get a sense that one get earn a living by being a naturalist Science and the natural world Sovereignty over natureassociated with enlightenment idea of Francis baconnatural world is here for us to exploit and we can have domination over natural world With better knowledge of the natural world we will better be able to harness it to then benefit mankindstrengthen empire 17tch C Francis Bacon created an idealized picture of natural philosophy he said it was a passive source of raw material discussed in his bookThe New Atlantisth 17 C belief the world is a machinepassive machine world lying there for human exploitation st ideology that has carried on to the 21 century has had many negative effects Carolyn MerchantHistorian Book called The Death of Nature published in 1980 Critics the world machine view States this is a masculine attitude towards the world Overturned traditional philosophy that identified the world as a feminine living beingthis used to encourage harmony Life would be more fruitful if we lived by more traditional terms Fueled the attitudes of ImperialismScience and the Empire Industry imperialism and exploration defined the European world by the 18thC James Cook 17281779Dual purposeMackay readingscombed out the dual purpose 1 context of explorationfinding new territory to colonize 2 bring back as many plant and animal species as possiblefor industrial purposes and many other practical purposes Spices and herbs for gardens medicines These specimens became symbols of national powerRESULT naturalist started to have an increased and renewed relationship with the state and science becomes something extremely important to state activity Joseph Banks sir Symbol of the transformation which popularized naturalist in regards to the state What is Natural Historyit is a descriptive practice Collecting Displaying Identifying Naming ClassifyingObjects that they were interested in were generally part of the physical world separate from human artifice ex plants animals minerals Who was practicing natural history Often it was a practice preformed by well to do gentlemen way before any sense of ththprofessionalization took placeself described curiosity16 and 17 C CURIOSITYvery important characteristic of a gentlemen at this time period Wealthy individuals had the means to travel and therefore could find and then display unique objects they would find Ex Olaus Worms cabinet of curiositiesforeshadows natural history museums 1655displaying a great number of object Culture of curiosity Cluster the objects in the rooms very close together to create a further sense of wonderment which displays power to impress peers y Cabinet of curiositiesa symbol of wealth and power and status ththBy Banks context 1819 C collecting took on a new context no longer about entertainment but rather intellectual medical or industrial purposesShift away from private to public pursuit Joseph Banks cntd Most influential collector of his time and greatest botanical collector of his time Became extremely powerful advocate of science in this context He started out as an aristocratic landownerhe was truly a naturalist who devoted his life to plant collecting Accompanied Captain Cook on a voyage to the South seas such as Australia New Zealand PapanewginiPrimarily a political voyagetrade routes possible military basisHowever with Banks on this voyage political voyages became intertwined with scientific means such a collecting On his first voyage with Cook Banks was representing the royal society as a paying passengerRESULT he became very powerful scientifically and elevated the image of the scientific naturalist became confidant of King George III and president of royal society and become so influential he instructedBritish expedition established kew gardens Famous Transplants Tea from china to India And breadfruit from Tahiti to
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