Chapter 1-14 Midterm Review

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Human Resources and Organizational Behaviour
HROB 2100
Sara Mann

Culture Shared values, norms and beliefs - The feeling you get when you walk into an organization Effective leadership occurs in a culture with - Clearly defined jobs - Communicating and listening - Credibility - Trust developed from honesty and sincerity Strategy How a company plans to achieve its goals Structure Influenced by… - Organizational goals - Strategy - Size - Technology - environment Mechanistic - Narrow division of labour: jobs narrowly defined - High centralization of work procedures (rules and regulations, standardization) - Span of control: much hierarchy, many levels of administration Organic: - Wide division of labour: jobs “enriched” - De-centralization of decision making - Low formalization of work procedures (rules and regulations, standardization) - Span of control: little hierarchy, few levels of administration Perceptual errors Primacy: More likely to remember the first thing a person did; relying on early, first impressions Recency: More likely to remember the last/ most recent thing a person did; most recent information dominates perception Implicit Personality Theories: A group of personality characteristics or traits that you believe to go together; personal theories that people have about which personality characteristics go together Halo Effect: One trait that forms a general impression of a person (a person does one good thing, and they are perceived as being good or having good behaviour) Projection: we project our own beliefs onto the beliefs of others/ our employees; believing other people are similar to you Similar to me Effect: finding something about someone that is similar to ourselves, which causes a favourable bias towards them Stereotyping: the tendency to generalize about people in a social category and ignore variations among them Attribution errors Fundamental Attribution Error: the tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behaviour of others Self-Serving Bias: The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors Actor-Observer Effect: Propensity for actors and observers to view the causes of the actor’s behaviour differently (the difference between the other two errors). When someone fails, they attribute their own behaviour to external factors, while others attribute the person’s behaviour to internal factors Importance of individual difference (personality) - Personality used to be considered an important determinant of motivation, attitudes, performance and leadership. Now a more interactionalist approach is accepted - It’s important to put the right individual in the right job, group or organization - Exposing different employees to different leadership styles based on personality Organizational Commitment Normative: because you “should”; based on a feeling of obligation Affective: Because you “want to”; based on identification and involvement with an organization Continuance: Because you “have to”; based on costs incurred with leaving the organization Fairness Procedural: occurs when the process used to determine work outcomes is seen as reasonable Distributive: occurs when people feel they have received respectful and informative communication Interactional: work rewards and resources are distributed fairly The Selection System Valid: Accurately measures what it intends to Reliable: Results can be replicated Practical: Cost, time, resources available Free from bias: no discrimination Fit - Person to Job; Person to Organization - Weak situations: lots of opportunities and personalities - Strong situations: lots of rules and structure, personality does not play a big role The “Big Five” personality dimensions - Extraversion: outgoing vs. shy - Emotional Stability: emotional control - Agreeableness: friendly and approachable - Conscientiousness: responsible and achievement oriented - Openness to Experience: thinks flexibly, receptive to new ideas Content validity vs. criterion related validity Content Validity: must “defend” rationale of using test; does the system adequately represent the behaviour/ knowledge of the position? Criterion Validity: Does the system adequately indicate the relationship between the predictor (the test) and the criterion (performance on the job); ex, IQ and job performance Learning principles – factors that contribute to effective learning Participation: participants are actively involved Repetition: repeated review of material Relevance: material is meaningful Transference: application of training to actual job situation (ex; flight simulation) Feedback: information given to learners (their progress) Training vs. Development Training: focuses on job performance; emphasis is on acquisition of specific KSAs needed for present job Development: focuses on personal growth, longer-term development; emphasis is on acquiring KSAs needed for future job or organizational need Individual effects on the transfer of training - Set proximal goals - Set specific goals - Engage in self-talk - Relapse prevention (brainstorm problems and how to overcome them) - Mental imagery Organizational effects on the transfer of training - Relates to trainee’s outcome expectancies: will the behaviour lead to desired outcomes? - Rewards, pay and promotion: are there rewards for demonstrating the new behaviour? - Environmental constraints/ obstacles: lack of equipment, information, time, etc. - Supervisory and peer support: reinforce training, provide opportunities, reward; train coworkers together, reinforce each other - Organization’s learning climate: learning is encouraged, supported, rewarded, etc. Motivation Operant Learning Theory - rat example: learned to operate the lever to get
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