Lecture 1: intro to plant and animal genetics. Red algae: separated from rest by lack of chloroplast containing chlorophyll a & b, b-carotene and store starch in plastid, oxygenic photoautotrophs: ability to live on land: separates out the green algae species. Do not contain waterproof cuticle + stromata, multicellular reproductive structures, alternation of generations, retention of embryo: vascular tissues: separates out the mosses. Do not contain xylem & phloem with lignin (larger sporophytes: seed: separates out the monilophytes (ferns etc) Do not have seed coat, dispersal mechanisms, or pollen & enhanced fertilizations: flowers: separates the gymnosperms & angiosperms (flower bearing plants) Angiosperms have enhanced pollination, seed protected in ovary, fruit dispersal. Recombination: the production of gene combinations not found in parents by: assortment of non-homologous chromosomes , crossing over of homologous chromosomes during meisosis. For linked genes: frequency of recombination used to estimate genetic map distance.