CHAPTER-06.doc

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Department
Marketing and Consumer Studies
Course
MCS 1000
Professor
Andrew Mac Dougall
Semester
Summer

Description
CHAPTER 6 CONSUMER AND BUSINESS BUYER BEHAVIOR MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. _________________ refers to the buying behavior of final consumers. a. Consumer buyer behavior b. Target market buying c. Market segment buying d. Business buying behavior Answer: (a) Difficulty: (1) Page: 191 2. ____________ is individuals and households who buy goods and services for personal consumption. a. The target market b. A market segment c. The consumer market d. The ethnographic market Answer: (c) Difficulty: (1) Page: 191, 192 3. According to the text, the American consumer market consists of: a. 189 million consumers. b. 284 million consumers. c. 375 million consumers. d. 438 million consumers. Answer: (b) Difficulty: (3) Page: 191 4. Understanding consumer buying behavior is not easy. The answers are often locked deep within the consumer’s head. The central question for marketers is: a. how much money is the consumer willing to spend? b. how much does the consumer need the product being offered for sale? c. how much does a discount or a coupon affect the purchase rate? d. how do consumers respond to various marketing efforts the company might use? Answer: (d) Difficulty: (3) Page: 192 111 5. The starting point in understanding how consumers respond to various marketing efforts the company might use is the: a. Lipinski model of buying behavior. b. stimulus-response model of buyer behavior. c. Freudian model of buying behavior. d. Maslow’s model of life-cycle changes. Answer: (b) Difficulty: (2) Page: 192, Figure 6-1 6. According to the stimulus-response model of buyer behavior (as presented in your text), the place where consumers process marketing stimuli prior to making a purchase decision is called the: a. consumer’s value chain. b. consumer’s cognitive schema. c. consumer’s black box. d. consumer’s thoughts-emotions network. Answer: (c) Difficulty: (2) Page: 192, Figure 6-1 7. Consumer purchases are influenced strongly by cultural, social, personal, and: a. psychographic characteristics. b. psychological characteristics. c. psychometric characteristics. d. supply and demand characteristics. Answer: (b) Difficulty: (2) Page: 192, 193, Figure 6-2 8. ______________ is the most basic cause of a person’s wants and behaviors. a. Culture b. Social class c. Personality d. Lifestyle Answer: (a) Difficulty: (1) Page: 193 9. A child in the United States is normally exposed to all of the following values EXCEPT: a. achievement and success. b. activity and involvement. c. material comfort. d. collectivism. Answer: (d) Difficulty: (3) Page: 193 112 10. Marketers are always trying to spot ____________ in order to discover new products that might be wanted. a. opinion graphers b. dissonant groups c. cultural shifts d. benchmarks Answer: (c) Difficulty: (2) Page: 193 11. The cultural shift toward _____________ has resulted in more demand for casual clothing and simpler home furnishings. a. liberal political causes b. conservative political causes c. informality d. downsizing Answer: (c) Difficulty: (2) Page: 193 12. A ________________ is a group of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences and situations. a. culture b. subculture c. lifestyle composite d. social class Answer: (b) Difficulty: (2) Page: 193 13. Hispanics are often called an emerging market. Which of the following general product categories do not sell well to Hispanics? a. automobiles b. computers c. photography equipment d. generics Answer: (d) Difficulty: (3) Page: 194 14. African American consumers are strongly motivated by: a. quality and ability to return merchandise. b. quality and selection. c. stores who honor their cultural traditions. d. stores who have store credit. Answer: (b) Difficulty: (3) Page: 194 113 15. The fastest growing and most affluent U.S. demographic segment is the: a. Hispanic American consumers. b. African American consumers. c. Middle Eastern-American consumers. d. Asian American consumers. Answer: (d) Difficulty: (3) Page: 195 16. The greatest barrier to effectively marketing to the Asian American market is thought to be: a. reluctance to grant credit to this group. b. language and cultural traditions. c. the urban nature of their neighborhoods. d. lack of a mass media that reaches this group. Answer: (b) Difficulty: (2) Page: 196 17. Mature consumers are becoming a very attractive market. Currently, the 50 and older population is estimated to be about ___________ strong. a. 75 million b. 85 million c. 95 million d. 115 million Answer: (a) Difficulty: (3) Page: 196 18. Relatively permanent and ordered divisions in a society whose members share similar values, interests, and behaviors are called: a. cultures. b. subcultures. c. social classes. d. social factors. Answer: (c) Difficulty: (1) Page: 196 19. Which of the following is most true about social class in America? a. Social class is not determined by a single factor. b. Social class is determined by income. c. Social class lines are fixed. d. Social class lines are rigid. Answer: (a) Difficulty: (2) Page: 196 114 20. According to the characteristics of the major American social classes, the _________________ are the social elite who live on inherited wealth and have well-known family backgrounds. a. upper-uppers b. lower-uppers c. upper-middles d. upper-lowers Answer: (a) Difficulty: (1) Page: 197, Table 6-1 21. According to the characteristics of the major American social classes, the _________________ are primarily concerned with “attaining the better things in life.” They have attained positions as professionals, independent businesspersons, and corporate managers. a. upper-uppers b. lower-uppers c. upper-middles d. upper-lowers Answer: (c) Difficulty: (2) Page: 197, Table 6-1 22. According to the characteristics of the major American social classes, the _________________ are the class who leads a “working-class lifestyle.” They depend heavily on relatives for economic and emotional support. a. upper-uppers b. lower-uppers c. upper-middles d. working class Answer: (d) Difficulty: (2) Page: 197, Table 6-1 23. Sybil, Sara, and Janice are all on the school tennis team. They are very proud of the fact that the team pulled together to accomplish the goal of winning a state championship for their school. Which is the best characterization of the relationship between these three girls and the rest of their school tennis team? a. group b. trend setters c. VALS pattern d. lifestyle concept Answer: (a) Difficulty: (2) Page: 196 115 24. Groups which have a direct influence and to which a person belongs are called: a. membership groups. b. facilitative groups. c. bonding groups. d. social groups. Answer: (a) Difficulty: (1) Page: 196 25. As a form of a reference group, the _______________ are ones to which the individual wishes to belong. a. secondary groups b. facilitative groups c. primary groups d. aspirational groups Answer: (d) Difficulty: (2) Page: 196 26. The __________________ is a person within a reference group who, because of special skills, knowledge, personality, or other characteristics, exerts influence on others. a. facilitator b. referent actor c. opinion leader d. social role player Answer: (c) Difficulty: (1) Page: 197 27. Even though buying roles in the family change constantly, the ___________ has traditionally been the main purchasing agent for the family. a. wife b. husband c. teenage children d. grandparent Answer: (a) Difficulty: (1) Page: 198 28. A major reason for the changing traditional purchasing roles for families is that: a. the economic conditions are forcing more teens to work. b. more women than ever hold jobs outside the home. c. children are spending more time on the Web. d. men and women now shop together or “shop until you drop” for entertainment purposes. Answer: (b) Difficulty: (3) Page: 198 116 29. A(n) ________________ consists of the activities people are expected to perform according to the persons around them. a. behavior b. attitude c. role d. status Answer: (c) Difficulty: (1) Page: 199 30. The stages through which families might pass as they mature over time is a description of what is called the: a. adoption process. b. lifestyle cycle. c. Values and Lifestyle (VALS) topology. d. family life cycle. Answer: (d) Difficulty: (2) Page: 199 31. A ______________ is a person’s pattern of living as expressed in his or her activities, interests, and opinions. a. role b. status c. position d. lifestyle Answer: (d) Difficulty: (2) Page: 199 32. According to the SRI Consulting’s Values and Lifestyles (VALS) typology, _____________________ consumers are those that buy based upon their desire for activity, variety, and risk taking. a. principle-oriented b. status-oriented c. action-oriented d. value-oriented Answer: (c) Difficulty: (2) Page: 200 33. According to Forrester’s Technographics scheme for segmenting Internet customers according to motivation, desire, and ability to invest in technology, __________ are the biggest spenders on computer technology. They adopt new technology for home, office, and personal use before most others. a. New Age Nurturers b. Fast Forwards c. Techno-Strivers d. Mouse Potatoes 117 Answer: (b) Difficulty: (3) Page: 201 34. ______________ is(are) a person’s unique psychological characteristics that lead to relatively consistent and lasting responses to his or her own environment. a. Psychographics b. Personality c. Demographics d. Lifestyle Answer: (b) Difficulty: (2) Page: 201 35. The basic premise of the _____________ is that people’s possessions contribute to and reflect their identities; that is, “we are what we have.” a. lifestyle concept b. self-concept c. personality concept d. cognitive concept Answer: (b) Difficulty: (2) Page: 201 36. A _____________ is a need that is sufficiently pressing to direct the person to seek satisfaction of the need. a. motive b. want c. demand d. requirement Answer: (a) Difficulty: (2) Page: 202 37. A good synonym for motive is a(n) _____________. a. omen b. need c. drive d. cue Answer: (c) Difficulty: (2) Page: 202 38. The theory of motivation that views people as responding to urges that are repressed but never fully under control was developed by: a. Marshall. b. Kant. c. Freud. d. Maslow. Answer: (c) Difficulty: (3) Page: 202 118 39. Dr. Ken Kaser designs qualitative research to probe consumers’ hidden, subconscious motivations. He specializes in using nondirective and projective techniques to uncover underlying emotions and attitudes towards brands and buying situations. Which of the following terms would most appropriately describe what Dr. Kaser is doing? a. market segment research b. cohort research c. psychodemographic research d. motivation research Answer: (d) Difficulty: (2) Page: 203, Marketing at Work 6-1 40. According to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, the lowest order of needs are called: a. self-actualization needs. b. social needs. c. safety needs. d. physiological needs. Answer: (d) Difficulty: (1) Page: 204, Figure 6-3 41. According to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, the highest order of needs are called: a. self-actualization needs. b. social needs. c. safety needs. d. physiological needs. Answer: (a) Difficulty: (2) Page: 204, Figure 6-3 42. __________________ is the process by which people select, organize, and interpret information to form a meaningful picture of the world. a. Readiness b. Selectivity c. Perception d. Motivation Answer: (c) Difficulty: (2) Page: 205 43. People can form different perceptions of the same stimulus because of three perceptual processes. These processes are best described as being: a. selective attention, selective distortion, and selective retention. b. subliminal perception, selective remembrance, selective forgetting. c. closure, modeling, and perceptual screening. d. needs distortion, wants analysis, and perceptual screening. Answer: (a) Difficulty: (3) Page: 204, 205 119 44. Kellye is a loyal Sony user. Her television, DVD player, cassette player, and VCR are all Sony products. When she hears or sees ads for Sony products, she almost always remembers the good points about the brand. In addition, when she hears or sees an ad for a competing product that points out the strengths of its products, she tends forget these points quickly or does not process them at all. The process that Kellye is has gone through is best described as being one of: a. selective retention. b. selective attention. c. selective distortion. d. stimulus actualization. Answer: (a) Difficulty: (3) Page: 205 45. In 1957, a researcher announced that he had flashed the phrases “Eat popcorn” and “Drink Coca-Cola” on a screen in a movie theater every five seconds for 1/300 of a second. He reported that although viewers did not consciously recognize these messages, they absorbed them subconsciously and bought 58 percent more popcorn and 18 percent more Coke. This process was eventually named: a. deceptive advertising. b. subliminal advertising. c. psychological manipulation. d. psychological modeling and transfusion. Answer: (b) Difficulty: (2) Page: 205 46. _______________ describes changes in an individual’s behavior arising from experience. a. Modeling b. Motivation c. Perception d. Learning Answer: (d) Difficulty: (1) Page: 205 47. A ___________ is a strong internal stimulus that calls for action. a. drive b. cue c. response d. perception Answer: (a) Difficulty: (1) Page: 205 120 48. Jack Lerma has a special relationship with his dog, Chris. Seeing dog toys in a pet store window, hearing of a special price on dog food during a television commercial, or talking with a friend and receiving a recommendation a on kennel are all forms of __________, which may eventually impact Jack’s purchasing decisions and responses to the objects he has seen or heard about. a. drives b. cues c. reinforcements d. dyads Answer: (b) Difficulty: (2) Page: 205 49. If a consumer describes a car as being the “most economical car on the market,” then this descriptor is a(n): a. rule. b. attitude. c. belief. d. cue. Answer: (c) Difficulty: (2) Page: 205 50. If a consumer tells friends “I like my car more than any other car on the road,” then the consumer has expressed a(n): a. rule. b. attitude. c. belief. d. cue. Answer: (b) Difficulty: (2) Page: 206 51. ___________ puts people into a frame of mind of liking or disliking things, of moving toward or away from them. a. A rule b. An attitude c. A belief d. A cue Answer: (b) Difficulty: (2) Page: 206 52. Which of the following is NOT one of the five stages of the buyer decision process? a. need recognition b. brand identification c. information search d. purchase decision Answer: (b) Difficulty: (2) Page: 207, Figure 6-4 121 53. According to the buyer decision process suggested in the text, the first stage is characterized as being one of: a. awareness. b. information search. c. need recognition. d. demand formulation. Answer: (c) Difficulty: (1) Page: 207, Figure 6-4 54. The buying process can be triggered by a(n) __________ when one of the person’s normal needs—hunger, thirst, sex—rises to a level high enough to become a drive. a. awareness b. external stimuli c. internal stimuli d. experiential motivation Answer: (c) Difficulty: (2) Page: 207 55. The stage in the buyer decision process in which the consumer is aroused to search for more information is called: a. information search. b. evaluation of alternatives. c. search for needs. d. perceptual search. Answer: (a) Difficulty: (1) Page: 208 56. The consumer can obtain information from any of several sources. If the consumer were to obtain information from handling, examining, or using the product, then the consumer would have obtained the information by using a(n): a. personal source. b. commercial source. c. informative source. d. experiential source. Answer: (d) Difficulty: (2) Page: 208 57. How the consumer processes information to arrive at brand choices occurs during which stage of the buyer decision process? a. need recognition b. information search c. evaluation of alternatives d. purchase decision Answer: (c) Difficulty: (1) Page: 208 122 58. Generally, the consumer’s purchase decision will be to buy the most preferred brand, but two factors can come between the purchase intention and the purchase decision. These two factors are best described as being: a. the cost and availability of the product. b. the attitude of others and the cost of the product. c. the availability of the product and unexpected situational factors. d. the attitude of others and unexpected situational factors. Answer: (d) Difficulty: (2) Page: 209 59. With respect to postpurchase behavior, the larger the gap between expectations and performance: a. the greater likelihood of re-purchase. b. the greater the customer’s dissatisfaction. c. the less likely the consumer will be influenced by advertising. d. the less likely the consumer will need sales confirmation and support. Answer: (b) Difficulty: (2) Page: 209 60. Cognitive dissonance occurs in which stage of the buyer decision process model? a. need recognition b. information search c. evaluation of alternatives d. postpurchase conflict Answer: (d) Difficulty: (2) Page: 209 61. A company must always guard against dissatisfying customers. On average, a satisfied customer tells 3 people about a good purchase experience. A dissatisfied customer, however, on average gripes to ________ people. a. 7 b. 9 c. 11 d. 30 Answer: (c) Difficulty: (3) Page: 210 62. The _________________ is the mental process through which an individual passes from first hearing about an innovation to final adoption. a. adoption process b. consumption process c. innovation process d. new product development process Answer: (a) Difficulty: (2) Page: 210 123 63. All of the following are part of the adoption process that consumers may go through when considering an innovation EXCEPT: a. awareness. b. process. c. interest. d. trial. Answer: (b) Difficulty: (2) Page: 21 64. With respect to adopter categories, the _______________ are guided by respect, are the opinion leaders in their communities, and adopt new ideas early but carefully. a. seekers b. innovators c. early adopters d. early majority Answer: (c) Difficulty: (2) Page: 213, Figure 6-5 65. With respect to adopter categories, the ___________________ are skeptical and they adopt an innovation only after a majority of people have tried it. a. early adopters b. early majority c. late majority d. laggards Answer: (c) Difficulty: (2) Page: 213, Figure 6-5 66. Several characteristics are especially important in influencing an innovation’s rate of adoption. _________ is the degree to which the innovation may be tried on a limited basis. a. Relative advantage b. Synchronization c. Compatibility d. Divisibility Answer: (d) Difficulty: (3) Page: 213 67. If a company makes products and services for the purpose of reselling or renting them to others at a profit or for use in the production of other products and services, then the company is selling to the: a. business market. b. international market. c. consumer market. d. private sector market. 124 Answer: (a) Difficulty: (1) Page: 215 68. All of the following are among the primary differences between a business market and a consumer market EXCEPT: a. purchase decisions to satisfy needs. b. market structure and demand. c. the nature of the buying unit. d. the types of decisions and the decision process involved. Answer: (a) Difficulty: (3) Page: 215 69. The business marketer normally deals with _____________ than the consumer marketer does. a. far greater but smaller buyers b. far greater and larger buyers c. far fewer but far larger buyers d. far fewer and smaller buyers Answer: (c) Difficulty: (2) Page: 215 70. When demand comes (as it does in the business market) from the demand for consumer goods, this form of demand is called: a. kinked demand. b. inelastic demand. c. cyclical demand. d. derived demand. Answer: (d) Difficulty: (2) Page: 215 71. General Motors buys steel because consumers buy cars. If consumer demand for cars drops, so will General Motors’ demand for steel. This is an example of the relationships found in: a. kinked demand. b. inelastic demand. c. cyclical demand. d. derived demand. Answer: (d) Difficulty: (2) Page: 215 72. That business markets have more buyers involved in the purchase decision is evidence of which of the following characteristic differences between business and consumer markets? a. market structure and demand b. the nature of the buying unit c. types of decisions made d. type of decision process itself 125 Answer: (b) Difficulty: (3) Page: 215-216 73. Purchases in the business market often involve large sums of money, complex technical and economic considerations, and interactions among many people at many levels of the buyer’s organization. This is evidence of which of the following characteristic differences between business and consumer markets? a. market structure and demand b. the nature of the buying unit c. types of decisions made and the decision process d. type of business classification Answer: (c) Difficulty: (3) Page: 216 74. The place in the business buying behavior model where interpersonal and individual influences might interact is called the: a. environment. b. response. c. stimuli. d. buying center. Answer: (d) Difficulty: (2) Page: 216-219, Figure 6-6 75. In a _______________, the buyer reorders something without any modifications. a. habitual rebuy b. straight rebuy c. modified rebuy d. new task buy Answer: (b) Difficulty: (1) Page: 217 76. In a _______________, the buyer wants to change something about product specifications, prices, terms, or suppliers. a. habitual rebuy b. straight rebuy c. modified rebuy d. new task buy Answer: (c) Difficulty: (1) Page: 217 77. When a firm buys a product or service for the first time, it is facing a: a. habitual rebuy situation. b. straight rebuy situation. c. modified rebuy situation. d. new task situation. 126 Answer: (d) Difficulty: (1) Page: 217 78. The “in” suppliers are most likely to get nervous and feel pressure to put their best foot forward in which of the following types of buying situations? a. modified rebuy b. new task buying c. straight rebuy d. indirect rebuy Answer: (a) Difficulty: (2) Page: 217 79. If a firm were to bid to do a “turnkey” operation where they would choose a building site, design a cement factory to build the plant, hire construction crews, assemble materials and equipment to run the new factory, and turn over the finished factory ready to operate to the owners, the bidding firm would be using which of the following? a. core process products selling b. design products selling c. reciprocal selling d. systems selling Answer: (d) Difficulty: (2) Page: 218 80. The decision-making unit of a buying organization is called its _____________: all the individuals and units that participate in the business decision-making process. a. buying center b. purchasing center c. bidding center d. demand-supply center Answer: (a) Difficulty: (1) Page: 218, 219 81. Considering the major influences on business buyer behavior, as shown in a model in the text, under which influence stage would you expect to find the influences of
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