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MUSC 2140 (15)

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School
University of Guelph
Department
Music
Course
MUSC 2140
Professor
Howard Spring
Semester
Winter

Description
Alice Hung Week 10 – Chapter 15 -The Avant Garde  Musical Terms o Avant Garde  More of a social attitude than a musical style  Artists want to change status quo -> which leads into a type of activism that reflects psychological dynamism  Originated from French military to the advance guard o Chord Cluster  Dissonant chords  Avant gardism represent a movement to liberate artist from the restraints of tradition which goes in hand with progressive social thinking as well as supporting social change  First Wave of Avant Gardism 1920s = Sub categories – surrealism, cubism, imagism, and twelve tone music = response to the devastation of World War 1 – expansion of women’s right and advances in technologies – socially daring and emblematic of free thinking youth  Second Wave = Late 1950 to 1960 – radical changes in racial and gender politics  First known as “Anti Jazz” to attack mainstream jazz, Avant Garde emerge to use to describe inclusive, ongoing school of jazz  Questioned and changed every facet jazz identity o Rhythm – changed from steady dance beat to ambiguous pulse o Harmony – Harmonic patterns based on chords or scales; thus creating a unexpected harmony o Melody – Lyrical or full of squeals and squawks, melodies no longer relied on harmonic patterns and resolution o Structure – reject blues and songs, encourage free improvisation o Instrumentation – favoured wide variety of instrument, including hand drums, wood flutes o Presentation – serious and challenging while being witty and funny o Politics - increasingly militant racial and antiwar struggles of the 1950s and 1960s  Ornette Coleman o One of American’s original figures o Grew up in Fort Worth, Texas – started to play saxophone at the age of 14 o Became enamored of the innovations of Charlie Parker and bebop o Moved to New Orleans in 1949, met Ed Blackwell; who encouraged him to preserve through hostility o Formed a band with Blackwell called American Jazz Quintet o Compositions possessed strong melodic, emotional character o Alto saxophone – alienating aspect of his music – his timbre had a rough edged.
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