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Midterm

NUTR3210 Midterm: Complete Notes for Nutrition Midterm.docx

by OneClass334071 , Winter 2015
17 Pages
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Department
Nutrition
Course Code
NUTR 3210
Professor
David Mutch
Study Guide
Midterm

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Complete Notes for Nutrition Midterm-
LECTURE 1
Irion/Folate/ B12- Anaemia
D- Rickets
C- Scurvy
Thiamine/ B1- Beriberi
Deficiency relates to prevention of disease
Nutritional requirements- optimal health
Estimated Average Requirement- EAR
Recommended Daily Intake- RDI
A nutritious diet is
Balanced
Adequate
Moderate
Varied
Organic (contains Carbon)- carbs, lipid, protein, vitamin
Inorganic- minerals and water
Macro- lipids, carbs, protein
Micro- vitamin and minerals
Functions of water
Solvent
Lubricant
Temperature regulation
Catabolism (hydrolysis)
Water toxicity- Hyponatremia (there is not enough salt in the body fluids outside the cell)
LECTURE 2
MEAN CN- Moisture, ether, Ash, nitrogen, crude fibre, NFE
Why do we need to determine water weight?
Part of price of feed
Must be shopped
Moisture content plays a role in storage conditions
Moisture in foods dilutes energy and nutrients
Proper moisture important for optimum intake and performance
PROXIMATE ANALYSIS
% Moisture- weight loss/ wet weight of sample
SE- other things come out in the drying process, SCFA and some minerals
Leads to UNDERestimation
Humans care about wet weight, agricultural cares about dry weight
% Ether (crude fat)- weight crude fat/ wet weight of sample
SE- other things come out in ether extract, chlorophyll, resins and waxes
NOT nutrients
% ASH (mineral content)- weight Ash/ wet weight of sample
ASH content:
Nutritional labeling
Quality and taste of food
Microbiological stability
Nutritional requirements and processing
SE- volatile minerals may be lost, e.g. iron, copper and zinc
No information about individual minerals, sodium content now mandatory on human
food labels
% Crude Protein- N in sample * 6.25/ wet weight of sample
All nitrogen is in protein; all protein contains 16% nitrogen
100/16=6.25
SE- other sources of nitrogen, e.g. nitrates, nitrites, nucleic acids, etc. interpreted as
protein
% Crude fibre- (weight of ASH + crude fibre)- (weight of ASH) / wet weight of
sample
SE- underestimate fibre content- hemicellulose, pectin, hydrocolloids are soluble in acid
and bases
Unable to distinguish fibre components
Crude fibre DOES NOT = dietary fibre
Crude fibre is an underestimation of actual dietary fibre
Crude fibre lignin and cellulose
Dietary cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose, pectin, hydrocolloids
% NFE= 100 – all other shit
- Estimates STARCH and SUGAR content
General Comments on this horrible method-
No info on digestibility
No info on specific amino acids, minerals, lipids or carbs
Still used (even though theres basically no info on anything…)
Dietary Fibre- non-digestible complex CHO, structural part of plants
Insoluble- cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose
Soluble- pectins, gums, mucilages
Soluble fibres are good at regulating our glucose uptake
Food/Feeds Composition
1) Van Soest Method- quantifies fermentable and non-fermentable CHO,
agricultural practices, differentiates between lignin and hemicellulose &
cellulose, poorly differentiates sugars, starches and cell solubles
2) Southgate Method- info about sugars, starch and fibre, human nutrition, does not
differentiate between fibre components
LECTURE 3
GI tract- mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, caecum, rectum
GI tract is not the digestive system; digestive system is the GI tract PLUS associated
organs (liver, pancreas, gallbladder)
Digestibility- can host organism digest it

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Description
Complete Notes for Nutrition Midterm­ LECTURE 1 Irion/Folate/ B12­ Anaemia D­ Rickets C­ Scurvy Thiamine/ B1­ Beriberi Deficiency relates to prevention of disease Nutritional requirements­ optimal health Estimated Average Requirement­ EAR Recommended Daily Intake­ RDI A nutritious diet is  • Balanced • Adequate • Moderate  • Varied  Organic (contains Carbon)­ carbs, lipid, protein, vitamin Inorganic­ minerals and water Macro­ lipids, carbs, protein  Micro­ vitamin and minerals Functions of water • Solvent • Lubricant • Temperature regulation • Catabolism (hydrolysis) Water toxicity­ Hyponatremia (there is not enough salt in the body fluids outside the cell) LECTURE 2 MEAN CN­ Moisture, ether, Ash, nitrogen, crude fibre, NFE Why do we need to determine water weight? • Part of price of feed • Must be shopped • Moisture content plays a role in storage conditions • Moisture in foods dilutes energy and nutrients  • Proper moisture important for optimum intake and performance  PROXIMATE ANALYSIS % Moisture­ weight loss/ wet weight of sample SE­ other things come out in the drying process, SCFA and some minerals Leads to UNDERestimation Humans care about wet weight, agricultural cares about dry weight  % Ether (crude fat)­ weight crude fat/ wet weight of sample SE­ other things come out in ether extract, chlorophyll, resins and waxes NOT nutrients % ASH (mineral content)­ weight Ash/ wet weight of sample ASH content: • Nutritional labeling • Quality and taste of food • Microbiological stability • Nutritional requirements and processing  SE­ volatile minerals may be lost, e.g. iron, copper and zinc No information about individual minerals, sodium content now mandatory on human  food labels  % Crude Protein­ N in sample * 6.25/ wet weight of sample All nitrogen is in protein; all protein contains 16% nitrogen 100/16=6.25 SE­ other sources of nitrogen, e.g. nitrates, nitrites, nucleic acids, etc. interpreted as  protein  % Crude fibre­ (weight of ASH + crude fibre)­ (weight of ASH) / wet weight of  sample SE­ underestimate fibre content­ hemicellulose, pectin, hydrocolloids are soluble in acid  and bases  Unable to distinguish fibre components Crude fibre DOES NOT = dietary fibre Crude fibre is an underestimation of actual dietary fibre • Crude fibre ▯ lignin and cellulose • Dietary ▯ cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose, pectin, hydrocolloids  % NFE= 100 – all other shit ­ Estimates STARCH and SUGAR content  General Comments on this horrible method­ • No info on digestibility  • No info on specific amino acids, minerals, lipids or carbs  • Still used (even though there’s basically no info on anything…) Dietary Fibre­ non­digestible complex CHO, structural part of plants  Insoluble­ cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose Soluble­ pectins, gums, mucilages Soluble fibres are good at regulating our glucose uptake  Food/Feeds Composition 1) Van Soest Method­ quantifies fermentable and non­fermentable CHO,  agricultural practices, differentiates between lignin and hemicellulose &  cellulose, poorly differentiates sugars, starches and cell solubles  2) Southgate Method­ info about sugars, starch and fibre, human nutrition, does not  differentiate between fibre components  LECTURE 3 GI tract­ mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, caecum, rectum GI tract is not the digestive system; digestive system is the GI tract PLUS associated  organs (liver, pancreas, gallbladder) Digestibility­ can host organism digest it Solubility­ is CHO soluble in aqueous environment of digestive tract? Fermentability­ do gut bacteria have molecular machinery to digest CHO? Yes=  fermentable  1) Simple System­ human, pig, cat, dog  monogastric, non­functional caecum, suited for a nutrient dense, low fibre diet Oral cavity­ food is chewed, mixed with saliva with 2 enzymes • Alpha Amylase • Lingual lipase Stomach­ cardia, fundus, body, antrum  Gastric glands secrete gastric juice • H2O, electrolytes, HCl, enzymes  Food becomes Chyme once mixed with these gastric juices  Small Intestine­ duodenum, jejunum, ileum Main site for nutrient digestion and absorption  Longitudinal and circular motility  Chyme acidity neutralized by pancreatic juices  Digestion of food, pancreatic juices, bile acids  Bile acids are PRODUCED in liver but STORED in gallbladder  Large Intestine­ a.k.a. colon Fermentation here, produces short chain fatty acids SCFA  Water absorption  Small intestine surface area increased by Kerckring folds, villi and crypts and  microvilli Transport mechanism depends on: 1) Solubility 2) Concentration gradient 3) Molecular size Large intestine­ 10^12/g bacteria  Up to 1000 species identified per person  1000:1 anaerobic to aerobic bacteria  Fermentation of non­digestible CHO, protein, alcohols, fibres  CHO fermentation generates lactate and SCFA 2) Simple System with functional caecum­ e.g. horse, rabbit, hamster Pseudo­ruminant, functional caecum, suited for a diet with large amounts of  forage Enormous hindgut with bacteria Obtains 70% of energy from SCFA Produces B­vitamins  Coprophagy­ eating shit  3) Ruminant­ e.g. cattle, sheep, goats  Large stomach divided into four sections  i. Rumen  ii. Reticulum iii. Omasum iv. Abomasum  Reticulum­ honeycomb appearance, traps foreign materials, region of microbial  fermentation Rumen­ largest section, rumen papillae­ increases SA for absorption, food is  mixed and partially broken down and stored temporarily Rich in bacteria­ fermentation vat 60­80% of energy by SCFA Omasum­ resorption of water and some electrolytes, filters large particles  Abomasum­ the “true” stomach, similar to that of monogastric animals Digestive enzymes secreted from gastric glands (HCl, mucin, pepsinogen, lipase  etc.) Fermentation takes place before entering the intestine­ FOREGUT DIGESTION Nutrients produced are available for subsequent digestion and absorption Rumen has 10­50 billion bacteria/ g of ruminal fluid Pros­ vitamin synthesis and non­protein nitrogen utilization Disadvantages­ carb utilization, heat production  4) Avian System­ chicken, turkey etc.  Beak and claws to break shit up (hard concept !!!)  Crop­ enlarged area of the esophagus, temporary storage of food, food is softened  Two­chambered stomach: Glandular portion­ proventriculus, gastric enzymes and HCl are secreted functions  exactly like our stomach  Muscular portion­ gizzard grinds stuff  Small intestine­ basically the same as our Ceca­ minor site of bacterial fermentation Not a lot in avian system Large intestine­ basically connects small intestine and cloaca, water absorption  and storage of undigested material Cloaca­ basically the grossest thing ever, digestive, urinary and reproductive  systems all meet here  Digestibility­  Total Collection Method­ animal adapts to the diet over a 7­21 day period, isolate  it, measure intake over a three to ten day period, collect and weigh all feces,  analyze for nutrient of interest  Apparent Digestibility Coefficient­ Total Intake­ Total Feces/ Total Intake  Indicator Method­ A.k.a the marker technique  Requires a marker, either internal or external Adapt animal to test diet, collect a feed and fecal sample, analayze for marker and  nutrient of interest  Characteristics of a marker, e.g. ferric oxide, chromic oxide, silica, lignan • Non­absorbable • Cant be affected by the GIT • Must mix easily with food • Easily and accurately measured  Apparent Digestibility Coefficient­A­B/ A A= ratio of nutrient/marker in food B= ratio of nutrient/marker in feces Apparent vs. true digestibility • Endogenous secretions­ epithelial cells ▯ fatty acids  • Bacterial growth in gut­ nutrient synthesis ▯ biotin • Digestive enzymes­ protein secretion True Digestibility  1) Perform digestibility study using TEST diet 2) Switch to diet containing none of nutrient of interest a.k.a ZERO NUTRIENT  diet 3) Analyze shit 4) Subtract level of nutrient in feces of animals fed the zero nutrient diet from  test diet  A­(B­C)/A C= ratio of nutrient/marker in feces after ZERO NUTRIENT DIET  Feed intake, particle size, chemical composition, climate and age ALL EFFECT  DIGESTION EFFICIENCY  LECTURE 4 Energy Heat of combustion­ gross energy, max. amount of energy  Potential errors: over estimation, we aren’t a bomb calorimeter, doesn’t take into account  energy used for digestion and absorption  a­ Heat of combustion b­ Loss in urine c­ Apparent digestibility Atwater Value a.k.a physiological fuel value­ (a­b)*c CHO ▯ ratio of H:O =2:1 Lipid ▯ higher Protein ▯ has N but we cant use N for energy  Factors that affect heat of combustion of FA’s­ Chain length and degree of unsaturation HIF­ heat increment of feeding Also called the thermic effect of food Energy expended in digestion, absorption, distribution and storage of dietary nutrients 5­30% of energy expenditure  Net energy­ subtract HIF Supports basal metabolism, physical activity, growth, pregnancy etc.  Gross energy ­ fecal energy Digestible energy ­ gases and urinary energy Metabolizable energy ­HIF Net energy ­basal metabolic rate  Total Energy Expenditure 1. BMR 2. TEF/HIF 3. Physical activity energy expenditure  BMR= kcal/24 hours  Take it shortly after walking, lying down, post­absorptive state, relaxed and nice comfy  room  ▯muscle and bone most reflective of BMR 0.75 BMR= A* [M ] kcal/day A for humans is 70  Harris­ Benedict Equations for BMR­ Use sex, age, weight and height and physical activity  What Effects BMR? • Genetics • Age • Gender • Exercise­ fat 20% body weight and 5% metabolic activity, muscle 30­40% body  weight 25% metabolic activity, brain 5% body weight 60% metabolic activity • Temperature Katch­Mcardle BMR rquation­ uses fat % Direct Calorimetry­ measure heat  Indirect­ measure O2 consumed RQ= CO2/O2 (non­protein RQ) RQ tells us about energy expenditure and biological substrate being oxid
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