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Midterm

NUTR 3210 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Dermatitis, Cecum, Pectin

17 pages168 viewsWinter 2015

Department
Nutrition
Course Code
NUTR 3210
Professor
David Mutch
Study Guide
Midterm

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Complete Notes for Nutrition Midterm-
LECTURE 1
Irion/Folate/ B12- Anaemia
D- Rickets
C- Scurvy
Thiamine/ B1- Beriberi
Deficiency relates to prevention of disease
Nutritional requirements- optimal health
Estimated Average Requirement- EAR
Recommended Daily Intake- RDI
A nutritious diet is
Balanced
Adequate
Moderate
Varied
Organic (contains Carbon)- carbs, lipid, protein, vitamin
Inorganic- minerals and water
Macro- lipids, carbs, protein
Micro- vitamin and minerals
Functions of water
Solvent
Lubricant
Temperature regulation
Catabolism (hydrolysis)
Water toxicity- Hyponatremia (there is not enough salt in the body fluids outside the cell)
LECTURE 2
MEAN CN- Moisture, ether, Ash, nitrogen, crude fibre, NFE
Why do we need to determine water weight?
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Part of price of feed
Must be shopped
Moisture content plays a role in storage conditions
Moisture in foods dilutes energy and nutrients
Proper moisture important for optimum intake and performance
PROXIMATE ANALYSIS
% Moisture- weight loss/ wet weight of sample
SE- other things come out in the drying process, SCFA and some minerals
Leads to UNDERestimation
Humans care about wet weight, agricultural cares about dry weight
% Ether (crude fat)- weight crude fat/ wet weight of sample
SE- other things come out in ether extract, chlorophyll, resins and waxes
NOT nutrients
% ASH (mineral content)- weight Ash/ wet weight of sample
ASH content:
Nutritional labeling
Quality and taste of food
Microbiological stability
Nutritional requirements and processing
SE- volatile minerals may be lost, e.g. iron, copper and zinc
No information about individual minerals, sodium content now mandatory on human
food labels
% Crude Protein- N in sample * 6.25/ wet weight of sample
All nitrogen is in protein; all protein contains 16% nitrogen
100/16=6.25
SE- other sources of nitrogen, e.g. nitrates, nitrites, nucleic acids, etc. interpreted as
protein
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% Crude fibre- (weight of ASH + crude fibre)- (weight of ASH) / wet weight of
sample
SE- underestimate fibre content- hemicellulose, pectin, hydrocolloids are soluble in acid
and bases
Unable to distinguish fibre components
Crude fibre DOES NOT = dietary fibre
Crude fibre is an underestimation of actual dietary fibre
Crude fibre lignin and cellulose
Dietary cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose, pectin, hydrocolloids
% NFE= 100 – all other shit
- Estimates STARCH and SUGAR content
General Comments on this horrible method-
No info on digestibility
No info on specific amino acids, minerals, lipids or carbs
Still used (even though theres basically no info on anything…)
Dietary Fibre- non-digestible complex CHO, structural part of plants
Insoluble- cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose
Soluble- pectins, gums, mucilages
Soluble fibres are good at regulating our glucose uptake
Food/Feeds Composition
1) Van Soest Method- quantifies fermentable and non-fermentable CHO,
agricultural practices, differentiates between lignin and hemicellulose &
cellulose, poorly differentiates sugars, starches and cell solubles
2) Southgate Method- info about sugars, starch and fibre, human nutrition, does not
differentiate between fibre components
LECTURE 3
GI tract- mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, caecum, rectum
GI tract is not the digestive system; digestive system is the GI tract PLUS associated
organs (liver, pancreas, gallbladder)
Digestibility- can host organism digest it
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