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Midterm

NUTR 3210 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Anabolism, Active Transport, Chemiosmosis

16 pages82 viewsWinter 2016

Department
Nutrition
Course Code
NUTR 3210
Professor
Genevieve Newton
Study Guide
Midterm

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NUTR 3210 Midterm Review
Unit 1
History of Nutrition
5th Century BC
500 BC: food becomes human body therefore must contain “generative
components” (you are what you eat)
460BC: Hippocrates recognized that medical examination should focus on the
individual, “our food should be our medicine and our medicine should be our
food”
17th Century
early quantitative approaches and empirical methods that alluded to
metabolism
1620: Santorio Sanctorius found that total amount excreted was less than
amount ingested
18th Century
some nutrients are essential
dietary supplements can improve health of individuals with particular
diseases
first clinical trial
1753: James Lind proved that citrus fruits could prevent scurvy
19th Century
purified diets showed importance of vitamins
-> identify nutrients and minimum amount needed to prevent disease
20th Century
determine amount for “optimal health”
DRI: dietary recommended intakes
21st Century
nutritional genomics: diet and gene interaction, amount required= specific to
person
prevent hidden hunger
Goals of Nutrition
1. research has moved from understanding how to prevent deficiency to
understanding the effects of over-nutrition (ex: calorie intake, micronutrient
supplementation)
2. understanding optimal intakes of multiple interacting nutrients
3. nutrigenomics: people are individuals who will respond differently to
nutrient status based on their genetic makeup
Essential Nutrients
chemical that is required for optimal metabolism, but cannot be synthesized
rapidly/at all to meet the needs of an animal/human for one or more
physiological functions
Purified diet experiment: experimental group food lacks specific nutrient=
shows deficiency, control group food has nutrient= no sign of deficiency
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~40 essential
fats: omega6, omega3
amino acids: Val, Iso, Leu, Phe, Thr, Tyr, Met, Lys, His, Arg
vitamins: A, K, E, C, D, B vitamins
minerals: Ca, Na, K, Cl, Mg, P, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, I, F, Mn, Mo
others essential under certain conditions- DHA for infants
Bromine
may be essential ultratrace mineral
required for extracelluar matrix
ripple effect: weak ecm-> impaired cell function --> more nutrient
deficiencies
Deficiency
Iron, folate, vitB12 --> anemia (suboptimal health)
vitD --> rickets/osteomalacia (suboptimal health)
Thiamine/vitB1 --> beriberi (death)
vitC --> scurvy (death)
Niacin/vitB3 --> pellagra (death)
Requirements
frequency distributions of nutrient intake needed by individuals within a
population to achieve similar end points
RDA (recommended daily allowance): EAR + 2s.d., meets the needs of 97-
98% of individuals
UL (tolerable upper limit): above this the individual runs risk of toxicity, no
all nutrients
TI (therapeutic index): UL/RDA, gap between safe and harm
AI (adequate intake): used when EAR and RDA cant be determined due to
insufficient evidence
AMDR (acceptable macronutrient distribution range): intake range for an
energy source associated with reduced risk of chronic disease
energy requirements dependent on individual needs
Research
Research Type Pros Cons
human
intervention
cause and effect -expensive
-difficult
human
observational
large subject numbers associations
animal model -strict control
-invasive
not humans
cell culture model mechanistic isolated/not whole organism
Water
55-65% of body
essential nutrient
intake: 2-2.5kg/day
aqueous pools: blood, extracellular (interstitial) fluid, intracellular
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functions: solvent, lubricant, temperature regulation, catabolism (hydrolysis)
hyponatremia/hemodilution: when water intake exceeds kidney’s capacity to
produce urine
Unit 2
Food Composition
proximate analysis: basic determination of moisture, crude protein (Kjeldahl
analysis of nitrogen), crude fat (ether extract), crude fibre, ash (minerals)
and available CHO (Nitrogen free extract/NFE) by subtraction
newer methods: replace or extend traditional components of proximate
analysis
southgate/van soest methods: to replace nitrogen free extract (NFE) and
crude fibre for modern CHO labeling
important for consumers, government regulations and quality control
Fibre
insoluble benefits: laxation, decrease risk of bacterial infections
soluble: decrease GI, increase satiety, decreases blood cholesterol, prebiotic
soluble insoluble
binds with fatty acids, bile
acids and lipophilic toxins
like PCB’s
helps move food through
intestine
slows down stomach
emptying which helps
slow absorption of sugar
participates in control of
intestinal pH, which can
benefit microbiota
reduces cholesterol
absorption by interacting
with bile acids
increased laxation, helps
toxic compounds move
through intestine more
quickly
provides energy and
maintains colon and
microbiota health through
fermentation and release
of VFA’s
reduces risk of
diverticulitis, colon cancer
provides small amount of
energy through VFA
production
forms gel remains intact through
intestines
pectins, gums, mucilages cellulose (little solubility),
hemicellulose (some
solubility), lignin (no
solubility)
Proximate Analysis
not useful- but basis for more advanced analysis
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