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Midterm

3210 Midterm: NUTR 3210 Midterm Review

16 Pages
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Winter 2016

Department
Nutrition
Course Code
NUTR 3210
Professor
Genevieve Newton
Study Guide
Midterm

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NUTR 3210 Midterm Review
Unit 1
History of Nutrition
5th Century BC
500 BC: food becomes human body therefore must contain “generative
components” (you are what you eat)
460BC: Hippocrates recognized that medical examination should focus on the
individual, “our food should be our medicine and our medicine should be our
food”
17th Century
early quantitative approaches and empirical methods that alluded to
metabolism
1620: Santorio Sanctorius found that total amount excreted was less than
amount ingested
18th Century
some nutrients are essential
dietary supplements can improve health of individuals with particular
diseases
first clinical trial
1753: James Lind proved that citrus fruits could prevent scurvy
19th Century
purified diets showed importance of vitamins
-> identify nutrients and minimum amount needed to prevent disease
20th Century
determine amount for “optimal health”
DRI: dietary recommended intakes
21st Century
nutritional genomics: diet and gene interaction, amount required= specific to
person
prevent hidden hunger
Goals of Nutrition
1. research has moved from understanding how to prevent deficiency to
understanding the effects of over-nutrition (ex: calorie intake, micronutrient
supplementation)
2. understanding optimal intakes of multiple interacting nutrients
3. nutrigenomics: people are individuals who will respond differently to
nutrient status based on their genetic makeup
Essential Nutrients
chemical that is required for optimal metabolism, but cannot be synthesized
rapidly/at all to meet the needs of an animal/human for one or more
physiological functions
Purified diet experiment: experimental group food lacks specific nutrient=
shows deficiency, control group food has nutrient= no sign of deficiency
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~40 essential
fats: omega6, omega3
amino acids: Val, Iso, Leu, Phe, Thr, Tyr, Met, Lys, His, Arg
vitamins: A, K, E, C, D, B vitamins
minerals: Ca, Na, K, Cl, Mg, P, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, I, F, Mn, Mo
others essential under certain conditions- DHA for infants
Bromine
may be essential ultratrace mineral
required for extracelluar matrix
ripple effect: weak ecm-> impaired cell function --> more nutrient
deficiencies
Deficiency
Iron, folate, vitB12 --> anemia (suboptimal health)
vitD --> rickets/osteomalacia (suboptimal health)
Thiamine/vitB1 --> beriberi (death)
vitC --> scurvy (death)
Niacin/vitB3 --> pellagra (death)
Requirements
frequency distributions of nutrient intake needed by individuals within a
population to achieve similar end points
RDA (recommended daily allowance): EAR + 2s.d., meets the needs of 97-
98% of individuals
UL (tolerable upper limit): above this the individual runs risk of toxicity, no
all nutrients
TI (therapeutic index): UL/RDA, gap between safe and harm
AI (adequate intake): used when EAR and RDA cant be determined due to
insufficient evidence
AMDR (acceptable macronutrient distribution range): intake range for an
energy source associated with reduced risk of chronic disease
energy requirements dependent on individual needs
Research
Research Type Pros Cons
human
intervention
cause and effect -expensive
-difficult
human
observational
large subject numbers associations
animal model -strict control
-invasive
not humans
cell culture model mechanistic isolated/not whole organism
Water
55-65% of body
essential nutrient
intake: 2-2.5kg/day
aqueous pools: blood, extracellular (interstitial) fluid, intracellular
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functions: solvent, lubricant, temperature regulation, catabolism (hydrolysis)
hyponatremia/hemodilution: when water intake exceeds kidney’s capacity to
produce urine
Unit 2
Food Composition
proximate analysis: basic determination of moisture, crude protein (Kjeldahl
analysis of nitrogen), crude fat (ether extract), crude fibre, ash (minerals)
and available CHO (Nitrogen free extract/NFE) by subtraction
newer methods: replace or extend traditional components of proximate
analysis
southgate/van soest methods: to replace nitrogen free extract (NFE) and
crude fibre for modern CHO labeling
important for consumers, government regulations and quality control
Fibre
insoluble benefits: laxation, decrease risk of bacterial infections
soluble: decrease GI, increase satiety, decreases blood cholesterol, prebiotic
soluble insoluble
binds with fatty acids, bile
acids and lipophilic toxins
like PCB’s
helps move food through
intestine
slows down stomach
emptying which helps
slow absorption of sugar
participates in control of
intestinal pH, which can
benefit microbiota
reduces cholesterol
absorption by interacting
with bile acids
increased laxation, helps
toxic compounds move
through intestine more
quickly
provides energy and
maintains colon and
microbiota health through
fermentation and release
of VFA’s
reduces risk of
diverticulitis, colon cancer
provides small amount of
energy through VFA
production
forms gel remains intact through
intestines
pectins, gums, mucilages cellulose (little solubility),
hemicellulose (some
solubility), lignin (no
solubility)
Proximate Analysis
not useful- but basis for more advanced analysis
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Description
NUTR 3210 Midterm Review Unit 1 History of Nutrition 5 Century BC  500 BC: food becomes human body therefore must contain “generative components” (you are what you eat)  460BC: Hippocrates recognized that medical examination should focus on the individual, “our food should be our medicine and our medicine should be our food” 17th Century  early quantitative approaches and empirical methods that alluded to metabolism  1620: Santorio Sanctorius found that total amount excreted was less than th amount ingested 18 Century  some nutrients are essential  dietary supplements can improve health of individuals with particular diseases  first clinical trial  1753: James Lind proved that citrus fruits could prevent scurvy 19 Century  purified diets showed importance of vitamins -> thentify nutrients and minimum amount needed to prevent disease 20 Century  determine amount for “optimal health”  DRI: dietary recommended intakes st 21 Century  nutritional genomics: diet and gene interaction, amount required= specific to person  prevent hidden hunger Goals of Nutrition 1. research has moved from understanding how to prevent deficiency to understanding the effects of over-nutrition (ex: calorie intake, micronutrient supplementation) 2. understanding optimal intakes of multiple interacting nutrients 3. nutrigenomics: people are individuals who will respond differently to nutrient status based on their genetic makeup Essential Nutrients  chemical that is required for optimal metabolism, but cannot be synthesized rapidly/at all to meet the needs of an animal/human for one or more physiological functions  Purified diet experiment: experimental group food lacks specific nutrient= shows deficiency, control group food has nutrient= no sign of deficiency  ~40 essential  fats: omega6, omega3  amino acids: Val, Iso, Leu, Phe, Thr, Tyr, Met, Lys, His, Arg  vitamins: A, K, E, C, D, B vitamins  minerals: Ca, Na, K, Cl, Mg, P, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, I, F, Mn, Mo  others essential under certain conditions- DHA for infants Bromine  may be essential ultratrace mineral  required for extracelluar matrix  ripple effect: weak ecm-> impaired cell function --> more nutrient deficiencies Deficiency  Iron, folate, vitB12 --> anemia (suboptimal health)  vitD --> rickets/osteomalacia (suboptimal health)  Thiamine/vitB1 --> beriberi (death)  vitC --> scurvy (death)  Niacin/vitB3 --> pellagra (death) Requirements  frequency distributions of nutrient intake needed by individuals within a population to achieve similar end points  RDA (recommended daily allowance): EAR + 2s.d., meets the needs of 97- 98% of individuals  UL (tolerable upper limit): above this the individual runs risk of toxicity, no all nutrients  TI (therapeutic index): UL/RDA, gap between safe and harm  AI (adequate intake): used when EAR and RDA cant be determined due to insufficient evidence  AMDR (acceptable macronutrient distribution range): intake range for an energy source associated with reduced risk of chronic disease  energy requirements dependent on individual needs Research Research Type Pros Cons human cause and effect -expensive intervention -difficult human large subject numbers associations observational animal model -strict control not humans -invasive cell culture model mechanistic isolated/not whole organism Water  55-65% of body  essential nutrient  intake: 2-2.5kg/day  aqueous pools: blood, extracellular (interstitial) fluid, intracellular  functions: solvent, lubricant, temperature regulation, catabolism (hydrolysis)  hyponatremia/hemodilution: when water intake exceeds kidney’s capacity to produce urine Unit 2 Food Composition  proximate analysis: basic determination of moisture, crude protein (Kjeldahl analysis of nitrogen), crude fat (ether extract), crude fibre, ash (minerals) and available CHO (Nitrogen free extract/NFE) by subtraction  newer methods: replace or extend traditional components of proximate analysis  southgate/van soest methods: to replace nitrogen free extract (NFE) and crude fibre for modern CHO labeling  important for consumers, government regulations and quality control Fibre  insoluble benefits: laxation, decrease risk of bacterial infections  soluble: decrease GI, increase satiety, decreases blood cholesterol, prebiotic soluble insoluble binds with fatty acids, bile helps move food through acids and lipophilic toxins intestine like PCB’s slows down stomach participates in control of emptying which helps intestinal pH, which can slow absorption of sugar benefit microbiota reduces cholesterol increased laxation, helps absorption by interacting toxic compounds move with bile acids through intestine more quickly provides energy and reduces risk of maintains colon and diverticulitis, colon cancer microbiota health through fermentation and release of VFA’s provides small amount of energy through VFA production forms gel remains intact through intestines pectins, gums, mucilages cellulose (little solubility), hemicellulose (some solubility), lignin (no solubility) Proximate Analysis  not useful- but basis for more advanced analysis 1. Determination of Moisture 2. Determination of Ether (lipid) Extract 3. Determination of Ash (mineral) Content 4. Determination of Nitrogen (Crude protein): Kjedahl method 5. Determination of Crude Fibre 6. Determination of Nitrogen Free Extract (NFE) = digestible CHO Digestion  chemical, mechanical and enzymatic breakdown of food matrix  saliva in mouth  alpha-amylase and lingual lipase in mouth- sensing ability  stomach- acidic component digests protein and kills bacteria  entrance: esophageal sphincter, exit: pyloric sphincter  empty= 50mL, full= 1-1.5L (Elastin)  gastric glands secrete: H20, mucus, HCl, enzymes (pepsin, pepsinogen)  chyme acidity neutralized by pancreatic juice in SI  pancreatic juice, bile salts, enzymes (protease, amylase, lipase) in SI  fermentation in LI- production of VFA  Absorption  digested molecules pass through intestinal mucosa (enterocytes) into bloodstream  mainly in small intestine and large intestine (water) Small Intestine  Kerckring folds covered in villi -> villi covered in enterocytes--> enterocytes covered in microvilli -> microvilli covered with brush border  nutrient transport: diffusion (lipophilic nutrients), facilitated diffusion (water soluble molecules), active transport (nutrients with transporters in basolateral surface) Colon Microbiome  most bacteria in colon  ferment undigested fibre, resistant starch, protein --> generates lactate and VFA 1. Simple System with Non-functional Caecum o human, pig , cat o monogastric o suited for nutrient dense, low fibre diet o strong presence of immune cells 2. Functional Caecum o enormous hindgut (20-30L) with bacteria o bacteria can breakdown most fibres to sugars and VFA o produce vitamins o consumption of feces o 70% energy from VFA 3. Ruminant, or Multiple System o foregut fermentation= increased absorption o cattle, sheep, goats o chewing cud= rumination o suited for high roughage diets o rumen and reticulum= expansion of esophagus o abomasum= acidic a) reticulum  honeycomb appearance to capture particles  trap foreign material  region of microbial fermentation b) rumen  largest section  papillae- increases SA for absorption  mixed and partially broken down  rich in bacteria, fermentation VFA  60-80% of energy by VFA c) omasum  resorption of water  filters large particles  60-75% fermented already d) abomasum  “true stomach”  gastric glands secrete: HCl, mucin, pepsinogen, lipase Advantages Disadvantages -vitamin synthesis -“destruction” of available CHO and -mineral availability due to fibre protein by bacteria digestion -heat production -synthesis of essential amino acids -non-protein nitrogen utilization . Avian System o beaks and claws important for breaking up foods into smaller pieces that can be swallowed o have to be light o rapid digestion o nutrient dense a) crop  enlarged area of esophagus  temporary food storage- for nighttime digestion  food is softened b) two-chamber stomach  glandar portion (proventriculus): HCl and gastric enzymes secreted  muscular protein (gizzard): grind and digest tough foods using small stones c) small intestine  shorter but similar to other systems  nutrient absorption d) ceca  minor- bacterial fermentation  x2 e) large intestine  very short- connects SI and cloaca  storage of undigested material, water absorption f) cloaca  digestive, urinary and reproductive systems meet  uric acid mixes with feces Digestibility  measure of the fraction of a specific nutrient of energy that is extracted by the GI tract  calculated from amount of nutrient in diet and amount appearing in feces  combination of nutrient released from food, microbial fermentation and absorption  bioavailability  affected by feed intake (large meals decrease), particle size, chemical composition, climate, age (decrease with age but increase with maturity)  apparent vs. true: may not be accurate due to endogenous secretions, bacterial growth in gut, digestive enzymes (may make digestibility look lower) Total Collection Method o allow animal to adapt to diet over 7-21 day period o measure intake over 3-10 day period o collect and weigh feces o analyze for nutrient of interest o metabolic cages= anxious animals (Anxious diarrhea) o labour/cost intensive o not ideal Indicator method o internal marker: natural component of feed (lignin) o external marker: component added to feed (ferric oxide) o good marker= non-absorbable, doesn’t alter GI function, mixes with food, easy/accurate o less labour intensive, smaller sample, less stress/interference with animal 1) adapt animal to test diet 2) collect a feed and fecal sample 3) analyze each for marker and nutrient of interest True Digestibility 1) perform study using indicator method 2) switch to diet containing none of the nutrient of interest 3) analyze feces 4) subtract level of nutrient in feces of animal fed zero nutrient diet from test diet Unit 3  1kcal/1Cal= 4.18kJ  energy required to raise the temperature of 1kg of water by 1 degree C  neutral energy balance: energy in (food and drink) = energy out (metabolic and cellular function)  positive energy balance (surplus): weight gain/obesity, infertility, CVD, diabetes, normal for growth and development  negative energy balance: weight loss, infection, common in evolution  food oxidation to produce water, carbon dioxide and heat  metabolism: temporary capture of energy as ATP (which later becomes heat)  calorimetry used to measure heat  gross energy (All)--> digestible energy (absorbed) ---> metaboli
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