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[PHIL 1010] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (35 pages long)


Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHIL 1010
Professor
Kyle Bromhall
Study Guide
Final

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UofG
PHIL 1010
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Week Three - PHIL*1010 – Introduction to Philosophy – September 19th
Reading – The State of Nature – Hobbes
Leviathan, pursues a theme that he was obsessed with; the evils of civil war/the anarchy
by which it would be accomplished. Nothing is worse than life without protection
The absence of government, human nature will inevitably bring us severe conflict
Political philosophy begins with the study of human nature
Two keys to the understanding of human nature
oSelf-knowledge (nature of thoughts, hopes and fears)
oGeneral principles of physics
Human beings are animated through motion (materialist, mechanist view of humans)
oWe are always searching for something that is never at rest
Felicity – intense happiness – the search to secure felicity will bring us to war with nature
oOne must become powerful to achieve felicity
In the state of nature there is a scarcity of goods, so that two people who desire the same
kind of things will often desire to possess the same things (constantly protecting)
People seek satisfaction and power – some people will attack others, even if they don’t
pose a threat purely to gain a reputation of strength as a means of future protection
Hobbes sees three principal reasons for attack in the state of nature
oFor gain, for safety and for glory or reputation
War – where everyone is fighting everyone else in self-defence
Hobbes states there will be times without any conflict; he states that wat is a constant
readiness to fight therefore no one is relaxed and no one lets down their guards.
The minority of nature would steal and kill, the majority would not attack people, etc.
In the state of nature there is no justice or injustice, no right or wrong
Laws of nature can relate to the golden rule “theorems/conclusions of reason”
Rationality requires both war and peace: distinguish between individual/collective
rationality (what is best for each individual on the assumption everyone is the same)
In Class – Lecture – State of Nature Part One
James
Did not mean to suggest he is advocating moral relativism
Until we talked to the other person, try and fit the puzzle pieces together
oSee how the different views fit, see what is right and wrong
Some views will be wrong; Ex: James when he was looking at the house in the woods
The State of Nature
The state of nature is a “thought experiment.” These experiments are the devices of the
imagination used to investigate the nature of things. Device to shape our reasoning
The State of Nature is a hypothetical state that existed prior to development of societies
oDoesn’t matter if it ever existed or if it is ever going too
What would you want to have/know about the State of Nature?
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oHuman nature (what drives and motivates us?), Morality (How?), How much
conflict there would be (cooperation vs competition), How we form relationships,
Environment (the resources available), Strengths and weaknesses (physical)
Prior to Hobbes the prevailing assumption was that society was natural
oThis is called political naturalism. It is the idea that if we are humans then we live
in a state; if we do not, then we are less than humans. The state arises naturally
from human natural inclinations, so the State of Nature is impossible
Thomas Hobbes – the first sustained attempt at describing the State of Nature
oWhat is natural about the state? What is its purpose?
oHobbes view of the State of Nature has 3 tenets:
Equality (our power) – Technology (we are all equal with respect to
the pursuit of resources, and those resources are considered scarce)
Felicity - The state of having all of the resources we need to pursue
whichever goods we wish to pursue when we want to pursue them
Scarcity (being in short supply)
Uncertainty (those who suffer a weakness in one area make up for it)
You don’t know what the future will bring
Instead, we are in a constant state of uncertainly with respect to
being able to satisfy future goods. We always try and get more.
For Hobbes there would be no morality prior to the creation of state. The
only normatively binding law would be to survive this. “Right of nature”
oHobbes thinks that all people are roughly equal in power
oWhat is the state of nature like? “In such conditions there is no place for industry,
because the fruit thereof is uncertain and consequently no culture of the earth, no
navigation nor the use of commodities that may be imported by sea, no
commodious building, no instruments of moving and removing such things as
require much force, no knowledge of the face of the earth, no account of time, no
arts, no letters, no society and which is worst of all, continual fear and danger of
death and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty is this wat of all against all”
oNo State, No Injustice
To get out of this state, Hobbes says the leviathan – an absolute monarch
that can dispense maximum justice and protect us from the State of Nature
But why the leviathan?
oIt is the most expedient for safety. In a democracy or
aristocracy, power is widely dispersed and succession
requires people to think, which they rather not do.
oDemocracy and aristocracy only puts the State of Nature
at bay, whole Absolute Monarchy settles it for good.
Hobbes thinks that anything is preferable to the State of Nature
“The Natural Right to Liberty
oThis is the right to continued existence (the right to everything to survival)
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