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POLS 2250 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Lyndall Urwick, Scientific Management, Lightning

Political Science
Course Code
POLS 2250
Tim Mau
Study Guide

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The following paper will compare the ideas and concepts presented by
classical theorists, versus humanistic theorists.
Classical theorists believed in “one best way”. Workers are motivated only by
means. Workers are considered product of means of production, and formal
communication processes between employees and management must be in place.
This is comparable to a machine as it is hierarchical, efficient, highly centralized,
tightly controlled and planning-oriented.
Taylor established the concept of “Taylorism”. He believed that employees
are lazy by nature and that workers need financial incentives to help. He said we
must use rewards and punishments and motivational tools. He argued that workers
would put in minimal work if they got away with it. Taylor also had a concept of
‘time and motion’. He measured the time of workers shoveling coal and averaged
out the amount of time it took to complete a task.
Weber had an “ideal-type” bureaucracy that consisted of seven components.
Hierarchical structure meant that bureaucratic organization is arranged in a series
of super-subordinate relationships. This was also known as the unity of command.
Specialization of labour meant that the purpose of hierarchical structure gave
responsibilities to the subordinate in a clear fashion. Employment and promotion
based on merit provided assurance and increased the efficiency of operation. Full-
time employment meant that employment in the bureaucracy was the full-time
activity and major source of income for the official. Decisions based on impersonal
rules meant that these rules are all impersonal in the sense that they apply equally
to all clients. The importance of written files meant that one must maintain written
records of rules and abide by them.
Gulick and Urwick coined the term PODSCORB. The “P” stands for planning;
establishing a broad outline of things that need to be done. The “O” stands for
organizing; establishing a formal structure of who will be doing what. The “S” stands
for staffing; bringing in and training staff according to the position. The “D” stands
for directing; the ongoing task of decision-making. The “CO” stands for coordinating;
essentially interrelating all the various parts of work. The “R” stands for reporting;
keeping those higher up informed at all times. The “B” stands for budgeting;
planning and accounting for the use of money.
Organizational humanism is theories that stress that work holds intrinsic
value for the worker. A human naturally desires working.
Mary Follett established the idea of a circular response and integration.
Circular response meant that no one unilaterally acts on someone else, and people
interact with one another in ways that influence both parties. Integrative refers to
the need to combine diverse elements into a useful whole re-statement of the old
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