Study Guides (248,283)
Canada (121,453)
Psychology (952)
PSYC 1000 (182)
Midterm

Midterm 2 - Notes.doc

17 Pages
125 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1000
Professor
Lisa Giguere
Semester
Fall

Description
MIDTERM 2 NOTES Midterm: November 15 2011th Intelligence (Chap 10) Intelligence in historical perspective • Intelligence: -The ability to acquire knowledge, to think and reason effectively, and deal with the environment • Sir Francis Galton (1869) -Argued mental ability is inherited • Alfred Binet (early 1900’s) -Development of intelligence tests -Mental age (MA): The age at which an individual is performing intellectually • William Stern (early 1900’s) -Used Binet’s MA to develop intelligence quotient (IQ): IQ = (MA/CA) x 100 • American intelligence tests: – Stanford-Binet (1920’s) • Mostly verbal items, single IQ score – Wechsler Scales: • Series of subtests (verbal & performance) – Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (1939) – Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (1955) – Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (1967) • Group intelligence tests: IQ tests that can be administered to many people at once, use written questions • Achievement tests: Designed to discover how much someone knows • Aptitude tests: Measure potential for future learning and performance Standards for psychological tests • Psychological tests: Method for measuring individual differences related to a psychological concept or construct • Keys for good tests: – Reliability – Validity – Standardization • Reliability: – Refers to consistency in measurement – Three types: • Test-retest reliability: Administer measure to same group of Ps twice and correlate scores • Internal consistency: All of the items of the test should measure the same thing • Interjudge reliability: Consistency of measurement when different people score the same test • Validity: – Refers to the accuracy of measurement – Three types: • Construct: Does a test measure what it is supposed to measure? • Content: Do items on a test measure all knowledge or skills that comprise the construct? • Predictive: How well does the test score predict criterion measures? • Standardization: Refers to designing the test so that your score will tell you how you did relative to the population, if they had all taken the test under similar conditions – Two components: • Norms: Provides basis for interpreting your score • Environment: Controls for extraneous factors that could differ across testing situations • eg: explicit instructions & procedures The nature of intelligence • Two main approaches for studying intelligence: – Psychometric approach • Map structure of intelligence • Specify kinds of mental abilities • Statistical study of psychological tests – Cognitive process approach • Specific thought processes that underlie abilities – Statistical study of psychological tests – Factor analysis: Technique used to find ‘clusters’ or common elements in a set of tests – The g factor (Spearman, 1923) • Intelligence performance governed by general intelligence (g) and specific abilities – Thurstone’s primary abilities • Intelligence performance governed only by specific abilities • Seven ‘primary mental abilities’ – Cattell and Horn: • Break down Spearman’s general intelligence into two distinct abilities: -Crystallized intelligence: Ability to apply previously learned knowledge to current problems -Fluid intelligence: Ability to deal with novel problem-solving situations without any previous knowledge 3 stratum model : – Gardner’s multiple intelligences • Eight relatively independent intelligences – Linguistic, mathematical, visual-spatial – Musical, body-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic – Emotional intelligence: • Ability to – Read others’ emotions accurately – Respond to others appropriately – Motivate oneself – Regulate and control one’s own emotional responses • Awareness of one’s own emotions • Adaptive advantage in managing emotions – Stronger emotional bonds, greater success, less depression Cognitive process approach: – Explore information processing & cognitive processes involved in intelligence – Triarchic theory of intelligence: • Metacomponents – Used to plan and regulate task performance – Include problem-solving skills • Performance components – Actual mental processes used to perform task – Include processing, recall, motor behaviours • Knowledge-acquisition components – Allow us to learn, store information, combine new insights with previous information Intelligence and neural efficiency: – Electrophysiological studies: Modest relation between IQ score and speed of processing – PET scans: Lower levels of glucose in people of high intelligence – Neural plasticity: Forming new connections may underlie differences in intelligence Influences on intelligence • Heredity & environment: – Strong genetic component, but no intelligence gene – Quarter to a third of variability attributed to shared environmental factors – Children removed from deprived environment show increase in IQ of 10- 12 points • Ethnic differences: – Group differences, not necessarily individual – Much overlap between distributions – No support for genetic interpretation – Due to environmental factors? • Sex differences: – Females better on tests of: Perceptual speed, Verbal fluency, Mathematical calculation, Fine motor coordination – Males better on tests of: Spatial tasks, Throwing & catching objects, Mathematical reasoning Social Psychology (Chap.13) Social relations Why do we affiliate? – Evolutionary theorists • Those biologically predisposed to affiliate = more likely to survive and reproduce • Socially oriented lifestyle = adaptive value – Protection – Division of labour – Passing on of knowledge – Four psychological reasons: • Obtain positive stimulation • Receive emotional support • Gain attention • Social comparison – Comparison of beliefs, feelings, and behaviours to others – Determine if our responses are ‘normal’ What affects our need for affiliation? – High need for affiliation (ex. More friends) – Sense of community (ex. Being part of a group) – Fear (Ex. Desire to be with others) Initial attraction – what causes us to connect? – Physical proximity • Mere exposure effect: – Repeated exposure to a stimulus increases our liking for it – Similarity • Tend to be attracted to people who are similar to us – Physical attractiveness • Assume more positive personality characteristics – Matching effect: Most likely to have a partner whose level of physical attractiveness is similar to our own What do we seek in a mate? – Social structure theory • Males and females have different mating preferences due to different social roles • Division of labor hypothesis: – Females seek males who are successful wage earners – Males seek females who fulfill domestic roles – Social penetration theory • Relationships progress as interactions between people become broader and deeper – Broader = more areas of lives – Deeper = more intimate • Self-disclosure plays a key role in fostering close relationships – Social exchange theory • Course of a relationship is governed by reward and costs that the partners experience • Outcomes evaluated against two standards: – Comparison level: Outcome one has come to expect in relationship – Comparison level for alternatives: Focus is on potential alternatives, influences commitment Types of love: – Passionate: Intense emotion, arousal, and yearning – Companionate: Affection and deep caring for others’ well-being – Triangular theory of love: 3 components of love • Intimacy = closeness, sharing • Passion = feelings of romance, sexual desire • Commitment = decision to remain in relationship • Thus, 7 types of love: • Cognitive-arousal model of love: – High physiological arousal + attributions of that arousal to another person = love – Transfer of excitation • Arousal due to one source is misattributed to another/Misinterpreted as love Prejudice and discrimination • Prejudice: Negative attitude toward people based on their membership in a group • Discrimination: Treating people unfairly based on the group to which they belong • Cognitive roots of prejudice: – Categorization and us-them thinking: • In group = good, out group = bad – Stereotypes and attributional distortions: • Make quick responses based on stereotypes • When individuals contradict our stereotypes, we can • Change the stereotype, Explain the person as an exceptional case, Explain behaviour using situational cues • Motivational roots of prejudice: – Realistic conflict theory: Competition for limited resources fosters prejudice – Social identity theory: Prejudice stems from a need to enhance self- esteem – How prejudice confirms itself: • Self-fulfilling prophecies: discriminatory behavior causes others to behave in a way that confirms our stereotype – Stereotype threat: Stereotypes can create self-consciousness and a fear that they will live up to others’ stereotypes • Reducing discrimination: – Equal status contact: Sustained close contact, Equal status of both groups, Work to achieve a common goal that requires cooperation, Supported by broader social norms Why do people help? – Evolutionary approaches: • Kin selection: Most likely to help others with which we share the most genes • Reciprocal altruism: Helping others increases the likelihood that they will help us in the future – Social learning and cultural influences: • Norm of reciprocity: Should help when others help us • Norm of social responsibility: Should help others and contribute to society’s welfare • Norms become internalized: Self-reinforcers (eg: pride, self- praise) maintain behaviour • Socialization: Children act more pro-socially if taught empathy • Cultural influences: obligation to help (India vs. America) Empathy and altruism: – Empathy-altruism hypothesis: • Empathy = ability to share another’s experience (Empathy produces altruism) – Negative state relief model: Self-focused goal not altruistic one, High empathy causes distress when others suffer, Reduced personal feelings of distress Bystander intervention: – Five step process 1. Notice event 2. Interpret as emergency? 3. Assume responsibility to help 4. Know how to help? 5. Decide to help • If answer to each is yes = help given – Whom do we help? • Similarity of person to ourselves • Just-world hypothesis (fairness) – Increasing pro-social behaviour: Exposing people to pro-social models, Encouraging feelings of empathy and connectedness to others, Learning about factors that hinder bystander intervention Aggression: Behaviour that is intended to harm another – Biological factors: • Heredity • Amygdala & deficient frontal lobe activity (No single structure turns ‘on’ & ‘off’ aggression) • Lower levels of serotonin (No aggression chemical) • Higher levels of testosterone (Associated with greater social aggression) – Environmental factors: • Frustration • Aversive stimuli • Learning – Operant conditioning: Aggression increases when behaviour produced positive outcome for individual – Modeling: Positive correlation between aggressive children and parents who model aggressive behaviour – Psychological factors: • Self-justification • Attribution of intentionality • Degree of empathy • Psychodynamic processes: – Principle of catharsis • Aggressive behaviour discharges aggressive energy • Behaviour temporarily reduces impulses to aggress • Channel aggressive impulses into socially acceptable behaviours – Overcontrolled hostility • Little immediate reaction • After provocations accumulate, can suddenly erupt into violence • Social learning: Exposure to movies and TV violence is related to aggressive behaviour Personality (Chap 14) What is personality? • Personality: Distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that characterize a person’s response to situations • Three characteristics of personality: – Identity – Internal causes – Organized Personality assessment • Six measurement approaches used to assess personality: Personality scales and self ratings, Interview data, Responses on projective tests, Reports by other people, Behavioral assessment, Physiological measures • Interviews: – Structured set of standardized questions, note other behaviors as well – Some drawbacks: • Characteristics of interviewer can affect answers • Dependence on cooperation and honesty of interviewee • Behavioural assessment: – Need explicit coding system – Aim is not solely to ‘describe’ behaviour (specific behaviour, frequency, specific situations, under what conditions) – Interjudge reliability: High level of agreement among observers necessary and depends on precise definition of behaviour • Remote behavioural sampling: Sample behaviour at random times over period of days, weeks, etc… Allows for data collection of behaviour that may otherwise not be revealed • Personality scales: – Objective measures: Use standard questions and agreed upon scoring key – Advantage: Collect large amount of data – Disadvantage: Validity of answers (the truth?) – Two ways to develop items on personality scales: • Rational approach • Based on theoretical conception of trait • Items seem relevant to the trait • Eg: NEO-PI • Empirical approach • Based on responses by ‘normals’ and psychiatric patients • Items were answered differently by different groups • Eg: MMPI-2 • Projective
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 1000

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit