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Midterm 2 - Notes.doc

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PSYC 1000
Lisa Giguere

MIDTERM 2 NOTES Midterm: November 15 2011th Intelligence (Chap 10) Intelligence in historical perspective • Intelligence: -The ability to acquire knowledge, to think and reason effectively, and deal with the environment • Sir Francis Galton (1869) -Argued mental ability is inherited • Alfred Binet (early 1900’s) -Development of intelligence tests -Mental age (MA): The age at which an individual is performing intellectually • William Stern (early 1900’s) -Used Binet’s MA to develop intelligence quotient (IQ): IQ = (MA/CA) x 100 • American intelligence tests: – Stanford-Binet (1920’s) • Mostly verbal items, single IQ score – Wechsler Scales: • Series of subtests (verbal & performance) – Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (1939) – Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (1955) – Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (1967) • Group intelligence tests: IQ tests that can be administered to many people at once, use written questions • Achievement tests: Designed to discover how much someone knows • Aptitude tests: Measure potential for future learning and performance Standards for psychological tests • Psychological tests: Method for measuring individual differences related to a psychological concept or construct • Keys for good tests: – Reliability – Validity – Standardization • Reliability: – Refers to consistency in measurement – Three types: • Test-retest reliability: Administer measure to same group of Ps twice and correlate scores • Internal consistency: All of the items of the test should measure the same thing • Interjudge reliability: Consistency of measurement when different people score the same test • Validity: – Refers to the accuracy of measurement – Three types: • Construct: Does a test measure what it is supposed to measure? • Content: Do items on a test measure all knowledge or skills that comprise the construct? • Predictive: How well does the test score predict criterion measures? • Standardization: Refers to designing the test so that your score will tell you how you did relative to the population, if they had all taken the test under similar conditions – Two components: • Norms: Provides basis for interpreting your score • Environment: Controls for extraneous factors that could differ across testing situations • eg: explicit instructions & procedures The nature of intelligence • Two main approaches for studying intelligence: – Psychometric approach • Map structure of intelligence • Specify kinds of mental abilities • Statistical study of psychological tests – Cognitive process approach • Specific thought processes that underlie abilities – Statistical study of psychological tests – Factor analysis: Technique used to find ‘clusters’ or common elements in a set of tests – The g factor (Spearman, 1923) • Intelligence performance governed by general intelligence (g) and specific abilities – Thurstone’s primary abilities • Intelligence performance governed only by specific abilities • Seven ‘primary mental abilities’ – Cattell and Horn: • Break down Spearman’s general intelligence into two distinct abilities: -Crystallized intelligence: Ability to apply previously learned knowledge to current problems -Fluid intelligence: Ability to deal with novel problem-solving situations without any previous knowledge 3 stratum model : – Gardner’s multiple intelligences • Eight relatively independent intelligences – Linguistic, mathematical, visual-spatial – Musical, body-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic – Emotional intelligence: • Ability to – Read others’ emotions accurately – Respond to others appropriately – Motivate oneself – Regulate and control one’s own emotional responses • Awareness of one’s own emotions • Adaptive advantage in managing emotions – Stronger emotional bonds, greater success, less depression Cognitive process approach: – Explore information processing & cognitive processes involved in intelligence – Triarchic theory of intelligence: • Metacomponents – Used to plan and regulate task performance – Include problem-solving skills • Performance components – Actual mental processes used to perform task – Include processing, recall, motor behaviours • Knowledge-acquisition components – Allow us to learn, store information, combine new insights with previous information Intelligence and neural efficiency: – Electrophysiological studies: Modest relation between IQ score and speed of processing – PET scans: Lower levels of glucose in people of high intelligence – Neural plasticity: Forming new connections may underlie differences in intelligence Influences on intelligence • Heredity & environment: – Strong genetic component, but no intelligence gene – Quarter to a third of variability attributed to shared environmental factors – Children removed from deprived environment show increase in IQ of 10- 12 points • Ethnic differences: – Group differences, not necessarily individual – Much overlap between distributions – No support for genetic interpretation – Due to environmental factors? • Sex differences: – Females better on tests of: Perceptual speed, Verbal fluency, Mathematical calculation, Fine motor coordination – Males better on tests of: Spatial tasks, Throwing & catching objects, Mathematical reasoning Social Psychology (Chap.13) Social relations Why do we affiliate? – Evolutionary theorists • Those biologically predisposed to affiliate = more likely to survive and reproduce • Socially oriented lifestyle = adaptive value – Protection – Division of labour – Passing on of knowledge – Four psychological reasons: • Obtain positive stimulation • Receive emotional support • Gain attention • Social comparison – Comparison of beliefs, feelings, and behaviours to others – Determine if our responses are ‘normal’ What affects our need for affiliation? – High need for affiliation (ex. More friends) – Sense of community (ex. Being part of a group) – Fear (Ex. Desire to be with others) Initial attraction – what causes us to connect? – Physical proximity • Mere exposure effect: – Repeated exposure to a stimulus increases our liking for it – Similarity • Tend to be attracted to people who are similar to us – Physical attractiveness • Assume more positive personality characteristics – Matching effect: Most likely to have a partner whose level of physical attractiveness is similar to our own What do we seek in a mate? – Social structure theory • Males and females have different mating preferences due to different social roles • Division of labor hypothesis: – Females seek males who are successful wage earners – Males seek females who fulfill domestic roles – Social penetration theory • Relationships progress as interactions between people become broader and deeper – Broader = more areas of lives – Deeper = more intimate • Self-disclosure plays a key role in fostering close relationships – Social exchange theory • Course of a relationship is governed by reward and costs that the partners experience • Outcomes evaluated against two standards: – Comparison level: Outcome one has come to expect in relationship – Comparison level for alternatives: Focus is on potential alternatives, influences commitment Types of love: – Passionate: Intense emotion, arousal, and yearning – Companionate: Affection and deep caring for others’ well-being – Triangular theory of love: 3 components of love • Intimacy = closeness, sharing • Passion = feelings of romance, sexual desire • Commitment = decision to remain in relationship • Thus, 7 types of love: • Cognitive-arousal model of love: – High physiological arousal + attributions of that arousal to another person = love – Transfer of excitation • Arousal due to one source is misattributed to another/Misinterpreted as love Prejudice and discrimination • Prejudice: Negative attitude toward people based on their membership in a group • Discrimination: Treating people unfairly based on the group to which they belong • Cognitive roots of prejudice: – Categorization and us-them thinking: • In group = good, out group = bad – Stereotypes and attributional distortions: • Make quick responses based on stereotypes • When individuals contradict our stereotypes, we can • Change the stereotype, Explain the person as an exceptional case, Explain behaviour using situational cues • Motivational roots of prejudice: – Realistic conflict theory: Competition for limited resources fosters prejudice – Social identity theory: Prejudice stems from a need to enhance self- esteem – How prejudice confirms itself: • Self-fulfilling prophecies: discriminatory behavior causes others to behave in a way that confirms our stereotype – Stereotype threat: Stereotypes can create self-consciousness and a fear that they will live up to others’ stereotypes • Reducing discrimination: – Equal status contact: Sustained close contact, Equal status of both groups, Work to achieve a common goal that requires cooperation, Supported by broader social norms Why do people help? – Evolutionary approaches: • Kin selection: Most likely to help others with which we share the most genes • Reciprocal altruism: Helping others increases the likelihood that they will help us in the future – Social learning and cultural influences: • Norm of reciprocity: Should help when others help us • Norm of social responsibility: Should help others and contribute to society’s welfare • Norms become internalized: Self-reinforcers (eg: pride, self- praise) maintain behaviour • Socialization: Children act more pro-socially if taught empathy • Cultural influences: obligation to help (India vs. America) Empathy and altruism: – Empathy-altruism hypothesis: • Empathy = ability to share another’s experience (Empathy produces altruism) – Negative state relief model: Self-focused goal not altruistic one, High empathy causes distress when others suffer, Reduced personal feelings of distress Bystander intervention: – Five step process 1. Notice event 2. Interpret as emergency? 3. Assume responsibility to help 4. Know how to help? 5. Decide to help • If answer to each is yes = help given – Whom do we help? • Similarity of person to ourselves • Just-world hypothesis (fairness) – Increasing pro-social behaviour: Exposing people to pro-social models, Encouraging feelings of empathy and connectedness to others, Learning about factors that hinder bystander intervention Aggression: Behaviour that is intended to harm another – Biological factors: • Heredity • Amygdala & deficient frontal lobe activity (No single structure turns ‘on’ & ‘off’ aggression) • Lower levels of serotonin (No aggression chemical) • Higher levels of testosterone (Associated with greater social aggression) – Environmental factors: • Frustration • Aversive stimuli • Learning – Operant conditioning: Aggression increases when behaviour produced positive outcome for individual – Modeling: Positive correlation between aggressive children and parents who model aggressive behaviour – Psychological factors: • Self-justification • Attribution of intentionality • Degree of empathy • Psychodynamic processes: – Principle of catharsis • Aggressive behaviour discharges aggressive energy • Behaviour temporarily reduces impulses to aggress • Channel aggressive impulses into socially acceptable behaviours – Overcontrolled hostility • Little immediate reaction • After provocations accumulate, can suddenly erupt into violence • Social learning: Exposure to movies and TV violence is related to aggressive behaviour Personality (Chap 14) What is personality? • Personality: Distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that characterize a person’s response to situations • Three characteristics of personality: – Identity – Internal causes – Organized Personality assessment • Six measurement approaches used to assess personality: Personality scales and self ratings, Interview data, Responses on projective tests, Reports by other people, Behavioral assessment, Physiological measures • Interviews: – Structured set of standardized questions, note other behaviors as well – Some drawbacks: • Characteristics of interviewer can affect answers • Dependence on cooperation and honesty of interviewee • Behavioural assessment: – Need explicit coding system – Aim is not solely to ‘describe’ behaviour (specific behaviour, frequency, specific situations, under what conditions) – Interjudge reliability: High level of agreement among observers necessary and depends on precise definition of behaviour • Remote behavioural sampling: Sample behaviour at random times over period of days, weeks, etc… Allows for data collection of behaviour that may otherwise not be revealed • Personality scales: – Objective measures: Use standard questions and agreed upon scoring key – Advantage: Collect large amount of data – Disadvantage: Validity of answers (the truth?) – Two ways to develop items on personality scales: • Rational approach • Based on theoretical conception of trait • Items seem relevant to the trait • Eg: NEO-PI • Empirical approach • Based on responses by ‘normals’ and psychiatric patients • Items were answered differently by different groups • Eg: MMPI-2 • Projective
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