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PSYC 1000 Study Guide - Final Guide: Frontal Lobe, Dispositional Attribution, Extraversion And Introversion

Course Code
PSYC 1000
Paula Barata
Study Guide

of 10
Part 3
Module 42: Trait theories, social- cognitive theories, and the self
Trait: a characteristic pattern of behaviour or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-
report inventories and peer reports
MBTI test: using Carl Jung’s personality types asks 126 questions to say what kind of person
you are
Factor analysis: a statistical procedure used to identify clusters (factors) of test items that tap
basic components of a trait
Extraversion: a type of trait
Extraversion-introversion and emotional stability-instability: what psychologists Hans and Sybil
believed we could narrow normal individual variations down to and they believe these factors
are genetically influenced
What does the biology of the brain say about extraverts? – they seek stimulation because their
normal brain arousal is decently low, frontal lobe area has less activity than introverts and
dopamine related activity tends to be higher
Personality inventories: longer questionnaires covering a wide range of feelings and behaviours,
assess’ multiple traits at once
MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory): most widely researched and clinically used
out of all personality tests. Originally made to test emotional disorders but is now used for many
An empirically derived test: a test (such as the MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and
then selecting those that discriminate between groups.
The “Big Five” factors: conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness and
extraversion- basic 5 traits to examine personality up to date
How stable are the five traits?- quite stable, some tendencies increase or decrease depending
on life cycle (conscientiousness increases the most during peoples twenties as people mature
and agreeableness increases the most during people thirties)
How heritable are the five traits? - varies for different people, approx. 50% for each dimension
Do the big five traits predict other behavioural attributes? - Yes
Person-situation controversy: does our behaviour change depending on the situation we are in?
- Yes it does, therefore must look at genuine personality traits that persist over time and across
Social-cognitive perspective: proposed by Albert Bandura and views behaviour as influenced by
the interaction between people’s traits and their social context. Many social cognitive theorists
believe we learn things through observation and that the way we think about our situation
effects behaviour.
Reciprocal determinism: Bandura views the person-environment interaction as this.
What are three specific ways in which individuals and environment interact? - Different people
choose different environments, our personality’s shape how we interpret and react to events,
and our personalities help create situations to which we react
What theme is prominent in psychology and in this chapter? - behaviour emerges from the
interplay of external and internal influences (behaviour is influenced by biological, psychological
and social-cultural influences)
Personal control: social-cognitive psychologists emphasize this. It is whether we learn to see
ourselves as controlling or as controlled by, our environment.
External locus of control: the perception that chance or outside forced beyond our personal
control determine our fate
Internal locus of control: believe they can control their own destiny- achieve more in school and
work, enjoy better health, and feel less depresses than externals.
Self-control: the ability to control impulses and delay gratification
Learned helplessness: the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns
when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
How do social-cognitive researchers explore behaviour? - Person’s past behaviour patterns in
similar situations to predict future behaviour (internships, military test situations)
What do critics say about the social-cognitive theory of personality? - focus too much on the
situation so fail to appreciate the person’s inner traits
The “self”: in contemporary psychology, assumed to be the centre of personality, the organizer
of our thoughts, feelings and actions
Spotlight effect: overestimating others noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance,
and blunders
Self-esteem: ones feelings of high or low self worth.
Self-serving bias: a readiness to perceive oneself favourably (we are more likely to take
responsibility for good ideas than bad ones for example)
Narcissism: excessive self-love and self-absorption
Module 47: Introduction to Psychological Disorders
Psychological disorders: deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional patterns of thoughts, feelings, or
behaviours. Being “deviant” from cultural norms.
How was the treatment of those with psychological disorders changed?- used to say people
were demons and shit, locked them away and received inhumane treatment but by the 1800’s
asylums were less common and more humane treatment.
Medical model: the concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical
causes that can be diagnosed, treated and in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a
What is the biopyschosocial approach to psychological disorders? - Nature, nurture and cultural
norms and definitions attribute to psychological disorders
DSM-IV-TR: the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manuel of Mental
Disorders which is used to classify psychological disorders.
Why is classifying psychological disorders important? - To describe, predict, and treat the
Why do some psychologists criticize the use of diagnostic labels? - That the labels are at best
arbitrary and at worst value judgments masquerading as science
Immigrant paradox: Mexican-Americans born in the United States are at greater risk of mental
Who is at the greatest risk for mental disorders? - varies depending on the disorder, generally
Module 48: Anxiety Disorders
Anxiety disorders: psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or
maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
Generalized anxiety disorder: unexplainably and continually tense and uneasy. Often jittery,
agitated, sleep-deprived, have difficulty concentrating, perspiration, twitching eyelids etc. One of
the worst characteristics is that people often don’t know they have it and it’s hard to identify.
Panic disorder: person experiences sudden episodes of intense dread. Strikes suddenly and
then goes away. Symptoms include heart palpations, shortness of breath, choking sensations,
trembling etc.
Phobias: person is intensely and irrationally afraid of specific object, activity or situation
Obsessive-compulsive disorder: in which a person is troubled by repeated thoughts or actions
Post-traumatic stress disorder: in which a person has lingering memories for weeks after a
serious threatening or uncontrollable event