PSYC 2310 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Facial Symmetry, Sukha, Physical Attractiveness

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Published on 13 Apr 2013
School
University of Guelph
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2310
Professor
Social Psych Notes Post Midterm 2
March 13, 2012. Chapter 12
Aggression
- Definition
o Happens in a social context, must be a victim
o Aggression in any form of behaviour directed toward the goal of harming or injuring
another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment: Baron and Richardson
o Masochism excluded
- Examples of aggression
o A man shouts obscenities and gives “the finger” to another driver who cut him off
o The hockey player deftly trips the player from the opposing team as he skates nearby
o A father slaps his son’s face for coming in past curfew again
- Nature vs. nurture
o Aggression is our nature
Born this way or not
Strongest survive
o Aggression is nurtured
We learn what is right
o Both are important for aggression
- Aggression is inborn (early theories) Instinct theories:
o Aggressive instinct (McDougall, 1908)
18 instincts: curiosity (need to learn), aggressive (destruction)
Did not explain what an instinct is
o Death instinct “Thanatos”: Freud 1930
Aggression and sex drive our behaviour
Thanatos: instinct to destroy oneself… later to destroy others
o Hydraulic theory
Unexpressed emotions build up pressure which must be expressed to relieve
that pressure
- Studies on aggression
o Observation of and experimentation with species other than humans
Zing Yang Kuo’s (1961) experiment: raising a kitten in the same cage with a rat
Cat did not chase rat, even other rats
Therefore, no instinct, learned
criticism: instinct can be controlled through early experience
Eibl-Eibsfeldt’s experiment: raising rats in isolation
Introduced new rat to rat in isolation
Rat has never seen aggressive behaviour
The rat did attack the other rat, also shows same behaviour that other
rats not raised in isolation
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Concludes there is an instinct
Criticism: for a behaviour to be instinct, should be spontaneous
Konard Lorenz’s observation of the behaviours of cichlids, highly aggressive fish
In nature, they do not attack other species of fish; they ignore them.
They only attack other male cichlids
Removed all males except one, lots of females and other species
o Do they attack other species now? YES
Remove all other species, leave lots of females and one male
o One male starts attacking females
In this case you can only explain this behaviour with instinct, tendencies
Aggressive behaviour is inborn
- Aggression is inborn
o Evolutionary perspective of aggression:
Human welfare originated in attempts to obtain valuable resources
Men look for younger, attractive partner, men want as many partners
as possible, want to support own offspring than others offspring, men
can potentially impregnate every woman on earth
Women look for status, someone who can support, protection, because
she can have a limited number of children
Emphasizing genetic survival
Women will be aggressive to protect offspring
Gender differences in patterns of mate selection
Study of sexual jealousy
Women don’t want partner to have emotional relationship, men don’t
want partner to have sexual relationship
o Biochemical and neural influences on aggression:
Amygdala, An area in the core of the brain, is associated with aggressive
behaviour
Testosterone, a sex hormone, is associated with aggression
Highly educated, higher socio-economic status: do not become more
aggressive
Lower-level testosterone males tend to be more mellow
Serotonin, neurotransmitter, is associated negatively
Lower serotonin, react more negatively to negative stimuli
- Aggression is learned
o Social learning theory (Bandura, 1973)
Occurrence of aggression depends on: Past experience, current reinforcement
and social and cognitive factors regarding the appropriateness of such
behaviours
o Relation between self-esteem and aggression, Lower levels engage in more aggressive
behaviour
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o Inflated self-esteem can be really aggressive
o Regional difference in violence
Cultural learning influences aggressiveness
- Situational influences on aggression
o Frustration-aggression theory (Dollard et al)
Freudian + behaviourist ideas
Frustration always elicits the motive to aggress and all aggression is caused by
frustration
Catharsis
Displacement
Supporting studies
Hovland and sears
o Correlation of racial aggression to economic security
o As economic security dropped, lynching of black people rose
Miller and bugelski
o Frustration increases negative attitudes to minority groups
Pastore
o Unjustified frustration leads to aggression
Overall: mixed results
o Frustration-aggression theory revised
Situational cues are associated with aggression by creating negative feelings
(perceptions of the situation not the frustrations itself) which trigger aggression
o Main differenced from
Situations cues: Weapons effect
Thursday March 20, 2012
Attraction and Intimacy
- Facts about attraction
o Physical proximity play a large role in attraction and relationship formation
o We like those who are physically attractive
o We like others who are similar to us
- Classical Conditioning
o UCS UCR
o CS nothing
o CS+UCS UCR (repeated)
o CS CR
o Link to attraction:
Nice meal pleasant feeling
Renaldo nothing
Renaldo + Nice meal pleasant feeling (repeated)
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Document Summary

Nature vs. nurture: aggression is our nature. We learn what is right: both are important for aggression. Aggression is inborn (early theories) instinct theories: aggressive instinct (mcdougall, 1908) 18 instincts: curiosity (need to learn), aggressive (destruction) Did not explain what an instinct is: death instinct thanatos : freud 1930. Thanatos: instinct to destroy oneself later to destroy others: hydraulic theory. Unexpressed emotions build up pressure which must be expressed to relieve that pressure. Studies on aggression: observation of and experimentation with species other than humans. Zing yang kuo"s (1961) experiment: raising a kitten in the same cage with a rat. Cat did not chase rat, even other rats. Therefore, no instinct, learned criticism: instinct can be controlled through early experience. The rat did attack the other rat, also shows same behaviour that other rats not raised in isolation. Criticism: for a behaviour to be instinct, should be spontaneous. Konard lorenz"s observation of the behaviours of cichlids, highly aggressive fish.

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