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Social Psych Notes Post Midterm 2.docx

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PSYC 2310
Saba Safdar

Social Psych Notes Post Midterm 2 March 13, 2012. Chapter 12 Aggression - Definition o Happens in a social context, must be a victim o Aggression in any form of behaviour directed toward the goal of harming or injuring another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment: Baron and Richardson o Masochism excluded - Examples of aggression o A man shouts obscenities and gives “the finger” to another driver who cut him off o The hockey player deftly trips the player from the opposing team as he skates nearby o A father slaps his son’s face for coming in past curfew again - Nature vs. nurture o Aggression is our nature  Born this way or not  Strongest survive o Aggression is nurtured  We learn what is right o Both are important for aggression - Aggression is inborn (early theories) Instinct theories: o Aggressive instinct (McDougall, 1908)  18 instincts: curiosity (need to learn), aggressive (destruction)  Did not explain what an instinct is o Death instinct “Thanatos”: Freud 1930  Aggression and sex drive our behaviour  Thanatos: instinct to destroy oneself… later to destroy others o Hydraulic theory  Unexpressed emotions build up pressure which must be expressed to relieve that pressure - Studies on aggression o Observation of and experimentation with species other than humans  Zing Yang Kuo’s (1961) experiment: raising a kitten in the same cage with a rat  Cat did not chase rat, even other rats  Therefore, no instinct, learned  criticism: instinct can be controlled through early experience  Eibl-Eibsfeldt’s experiment: raising rats in isolation  Introduced new rat to rat in isolation  Rat has never seen aggressive behaviour  The rat did attack the other rat, also shows same behaviour that other rats not raised in isolation  Concludes there is an instinct  Criticism: for a behaviour to be instinct, should be spontaneous  Konard Lorenz’s observation of the behaviours of cichlids, highly aggressive fish  In nature, they do not attack other species of fish; they ignore them. They only attack other male cichlids  Removed all males except one, lots of females and other species o Do they attack other species now? YES  Remove all other species, leave lots of females and one male o One male starts attacking females  In this case you can only explain this behaviour with instinct, tendencies  Aggressive behaviour is inborn - Aggression is inborn o Evolutionary perspective of aggression:  Human welfare originated in attempts to obtain valuable resources  Men look for younger, attractive partner, men want as many partners as possible, want to support own offspring than others offspring, men can potentially impregnate every woman on earth  Women look for status, someone who can support, protection, because she can have a limited number of children  Emphasizing genetic survival  Women will be aggressive to protect offspring  Gender differences in patterns of mate selection  Study of sexual jealousy  Women don’t want partner to have emotional relationship, men don’t want partner to have sexual relationship o Biochemical and neural influences on aggression:  Amygdala, An area in the core of the brain, is associated with aggressive behaviour  Testosterone, a sex hormone, is associated with aggression  Highly educated, higher socio-economic status: do not become more aggressive  Lower-level testosterone males tend to be more mellow  Serotonin, neurotransmitter, is associated negatively  Lower serotonin, react more negatively to negative stimuli - Aggression is learned o Social learning theory (Bandura, 1973)  Occurrence of aggression depends on: Past experience, current reinforcement and social and cognitive factors regarding the appropriateness of such behaviours o Relation between self-esteem and aggression, Lower levels engage in more aggressive behaviour o Inflated self-esteem can be really aggressive o Regional difference in violence  Cultural learning influences aggressiveness - Situational influences on aggression o Frustration-aggression theory (Dollard et al)  Freudian + behaviourist ideas  Frustration always elicits the motive to aggress and all aggression is caused by frustration  Catharsis  Displacement  Supporting studies  Hovland and sears o Correlation of racial aggression to economic security o As economic security dropped, lynching of black people rose  Miller and bugelski o Frustration increases negative attitudes to minority groups  Pastore o Unjustified frustration leads to aggression  Overall: mixed results o Frustration-aggression theory revised  Situational cues are associated with aggression by creating negative feelings (perceptions of the situation not the frustrations itself) which trigger aggression o Main differenced from  Situations cues: Weapons effect Thursday March 20, 2012 Attraction and Intimacy - Facts about attraction o Physical proximity play a large role in attraction and relationship formation o We like those who are physically attractive o We like others who are similar to us - Classical Conditioning o UCS UCR o CS nothing o CS+UCS UCR (repeated) o CS CR o Link to attraction:  Nice meal  pleasant feeling  Renaldo nothing  Renaldo + Nice meal  pleasant feeling (repeated)  Renaldo  pleasant feeling o Empirical Evidence  Griffit (1970)  Had participants in two different rooms: room temp pleasant in one, little hot in other  Given questions about another individual, some given description of person very similar to them. Some got description of someone different  Rate how much they like person they read about  Pleasant room: rated both persons significantly higher, always like those similar to us better, o Conditioning and Attraction  Reinforcement theorists and the three facts regarding attraction  Proximity increases the chances of classical conditioning.  It is pleasant to look at attractive people. We associate the pleasant feeling with the attractive person.  Similar people confirm our views. That makes us feel good and those feelings become associated with the person. - Social Norms o There are two different sets of rules that govern giving and receiving benefits in relationships o Exchange relationships  Usually acquaintance  Benefits are given with expectation of receiving comparable benefits in return o Communal relationships  Close relationships (lovers, parents etc.)  Benefits are given in response to the other’s needs or to demonstrate special concern for the other  Give more in these relationships  As you go up in relationship, you do more for that person o People who follow same norms like each other better o Empirical evidence  Clark and mills (1979)  Male participants worked on a word task creating words from letter tiles  Attractive confederate in another room  Cover story to create wither communal or exchange relationship expectancy (either they have a chance at a relationship or not)  After task participants were asked to transfer their extra letter tiles to the woman  The woman either transferred her credits or thanked the participants  Communal: if she just said thank you they liked her more. Exchanged: liked her more if she transferred credit o Social norms approach  We cannot adhere to the norms of communal and exchange relationship unless we come into contact with the other person  This approach has little to say about physical attractiveness  We like those with similar attitudes because the other can best understand us and we can best understand the other - Self-Evaluation Maintenance o People strive to improve their self-esteem through (Tesser and Collins 1988)  Reflection process  Comparison process o The application of these process depends on the relevance of the domain o Empirical Evidence:  Participants worked on a task that had either high or low relevance to them. Some told that if they do well that means you have verbal skills, highly intelligent.  Regardless, everyone got negative feedback  Later, they had a chance to give easy for difficult clue on the same task to a friend or stranger  High relevance: Gave harder clues to friends. Helped friend if low relevance - SEM Theory o SME and three facts regarding attraction  Proximity increases reflection and comparison processes, if the effects are positive then proximity should increase liking  Effect of physical attractiveness in a relationship depends on the domain of comparison  In performance domain it is complementarity not similarity, that is good for a close relationship - Arousal attribution o Passionate love is an emotional state + labelling the state as love for someone (Schachter, 1964) o Empirical evidence  Male participants listened to either negative, positive, or neutral audiotapes  All viewed videotape of their future partner  Half of participants saw an attractive female and the other half saw an unattractive female  Participants rated that attractiveness of the female confederate and their liking of the person  Regardless of what they heard, (negative or positive) as long as it was high arousal, rated attractive higher, low arousal attractive high but not as high. Rated unattractive lower with higher arousal (lowest with positive) o Arousal attribution and three facts:  People who are close to us are more likely to be near when we are aroused or to arouse us  We are attracted physically attractive people and those who are similar to us because we think they are more appropriate source of arousal than are others Final Exam Breakdown: - 60 questions from the text: chapters 5, 10 (332-352), 11, 12, 13, 14 - 60 questions from lectures o Altruism 8 questions, aggression 8, aggression across culture 7, stereotypes 7, prejudice 8, attraction and intimacy 7, attraction and intimacy across culture 8 March 22, 2012 Attraction and Intimacy: A cross-cultural review - Chemistry of love o What are the characteristics of someone in love? - Biological perspective o Romantic love is associated with specific chemical and networks in the brain  Dopamine  Associated with excessive energy, focused attention, goal orientated behaviours, dependency and sexual desire  Norepinephrine  Associated with excessive energy, sleeplessness, loss of appetite, increased memory for new stimuli  Serotonin  Associated with obsession - Experiment: Scanning the brain in love o “Have you just fallen madly in love?” o The bran activity of 20 participants who were “madly and happily in love” were scanned using fMRI o Findings:  High activity in the Caudate Nucleus  High activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) was found  This region produce s dopamine-making cells and distributes dopamine to many brain regions - Rejection in Love o 40 participants recently rejected by partners o Using fMRI, when participants looked at pictures of their exes, their brains engaged the same pain circuits that lit up that is associated with physical pain o Love hurts and the hurt isn’t entirely in your head - Whom do we choose? o Why does one person ignite these primitive brain circuits while another perfectly lovely human being leaves us totally unmoved? Why him? Why her? o Timing  People who are emotionally aroused have agitated mental states and have elevated levels of stress hormones, both systems increase dopamine o Proximity  Te theory does not offer a biological explanation for proximity in attraction o Symmetry (physical attractiveness)  The VTA lit up in response to a beautiful face o Similarity  Similar genetic types gravitate toward one another - Love and marriage o “if a (wo)man have all the qualities you desired, would you marry this person if you were not in love with him(her)?” (1967) o Nearly 2/3 of the male respondents and ¼ of females answered no to this questions o Similar results in 1976, 84. Different now - Cross-cultural surveys o Yes: Pakistan (50%), India (49%), England (7%), Australia (5), US (3.5) o Individualists ask: How does my heart feel o Collectivists: What will other people say o Levin et al: argues that economic prosperity influences the important of love in marriage choice and eventual divorce rates - The Arranged Marriage o Worldwide, the most common method of mate selection is by arrangement o Love based marriage is less present in extended family systems than in nuclear structures o Arranged marriages can be seen beneficial for some societies o Xiaohe and Whyte’s study on marital satisfaction  Higher marital satisfaction in love marriages than arranged - Love styles across cultures o A number of studies reported that:  Asian endorse more pragmatic and companionship love than North Americans and Europeans  North Americans and Europeans endorse more erotic love than Asians - Love and cultural values o Debate concerning whether individualistic values promote or inhibit love  Romantic love acts as a solution to the disconnection felt in individualistic societies  Extreme self contained individualism is negatively related to caring, need, and trust of one’s partner - Canadians and kissing o When it comes to kissing the world thinks the same: kissing mouth, neck  Finland: toes
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