[PSYC 2740] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 40 pages long Study Guide!

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29 Nov 2016
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PSYC 2740
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Personality Psychology: Chapter 1-6
Midterm 1
Chapter 1: Introduction to Personality Psychology
The problem with defining personality is how to establish a definition that is sufficiently
comprehensive to include all the aspects; inner features, social effects, qualities of the
mind, qualities of the body, relations to others, and inner goals
Personality is: the set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the individual that
are organized and relatively enduring and that influence his or her interactions with, and
adaptations to, the intrapsychic, physical, and social environments.
Personality traits: characteristics that describe ways in which people are different from
each other
Traits also define ways in which people are similar to some others
Traits describe the average tendencies of a person
Psychological traits help to understand the dimensions of differences among people, help
explain behaviour, and they can help predict future behaviour
Personality  useful in describing, explaining, predicting
Psychological mechanisms  Input  Decision rules: IF, Then Output
Psychological mechanisms  like traits, except the term mechanisms refers more to the
processes of personality
Within the individual  personality is something a person carries with him or herself
over time, from one situation to the next.
The important sources of personality reside within the individual and are at least
somewhat stable over time and somewhat consistent over situations
Organized the psychological traits and mechanisms for a given person are not simply a
random collection of elements. Personality is organized because the mechanisms and
traits are linked to one another in a coherent fashion.
Our personalities are organized in the sense that they contain decision rules that govern
which needs are activated, depending on the circumstances
Most personality psychologists maintain that although people are not perfectly
consistent, there is enough consistency to warrant including this characteristic in a
definition of personality
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Personality Psychology: Chapter 1-6
Midterm 1
Influential forces  personality traits and mechanisms can have an effect on people’s
lives
Personality influences how we interact with others, how we feel, how we select our
environments, our goals and desires, how we react to circumstances
People are not passive beings merely responding to external forces
Personality traits are forces that influence how we think, act, and feel
Person- environment interaction: interactions with situations include perceptions,
selections, evocations and manipulations.
Perception  how we see or interpret our environment
Selection  the manner in which we choose situations to enter—how we choose our
friends, hobbies, classes, careers, etc.
Evocations  the reactions we produce in others, often quite unintentionally
Manipulations  ways in which we intentionally attempt to influence others
Adaptation  a central feature of personality concerns adaptive functioning—
accomplishing goals, coping, adjusting, and dealing with the challenges/problems of life.
The physical environment  food shortages, extreme temperatures, heights, snakes,
strangers, etc. all pose threats to survival
Our “effective environment” represents the small subset of features that our
psychological mechanisms direct us to attend and respond to
Physical, social, and intrapsychic environments
Intrapsychic  within the mind—desires, memories, fantasies, etc.
3 Levels of Personality Analysis
1. The human nature level; like all others (Universals)
2. The level of individual & group differences; like some others (Particulars)
3. The individual uniqueness level; like no others (Uniqueness)
Human Nature
The traits and mechanisms of personality that are typical of our species and are
presented in nearly everyone. Ex. Nearly every human has language skills
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