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Midterm

PSYC 2740 Midterm: Personality Midterm 2
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6 Pages
73 Views
Winter 2017

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2740
Professor
Stephen Lewis
Study Guide
Midterm

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Personality Midterm 2
Chapter 7
Psychological approaches
Traumatic brain injury can lead to changes in personality
o Decreased ability to control impulses
o Higher impulsivity
Disruption of frontal lobes (control centre)
Can be measured reliably and mechanically
Characteristics functioning of organ systems
o Nervous (brains and nerves), cardiac (heart, arteries, veins), muscoskeletal
Diff in physiological make can make a diff in psychological functioning
o Sensitive nervous system = sensitive to loud sounds and therefore introverted
Theoretical bridge
o Condition (audience) personality trait (shyness) psychological response
(anxiety) psychological indicator (heart rate) behaviour (avoidance)
o Researchers must be able to build the theoretical bridge between personality
dimensions of interests and physiological variables
Physiological measures
Emotional reactivity intensity and persistence of emotion in response to stimuli
o Thought to be elevated among those who self injure negative events + stressful
tasks
o 2 groups those ho hae history of self ijury ad those ho do’t
people with history have elevated skin conductance and more negative
emotional reactivity to stress
also quit game soon lower distress tolerance
o mot common physiological measures obtained from electrodes from surface on
skin
non invasive
no discomfort
restricted movement telemetry electrical signals sent through radio
waves, not wired
3 physiological measures
o electro-dermal activity skin conductance
even before sweating is available small amount of electricity because of
water
some people show in the absence of external stimuli
some rated high on anxiety and neuroticisms appears to have
sympathetic nervous system that is in a state of chronic activation
o cardiovascular activity
heart and associated blood vessels blood pressure, heart rate
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blood pressure pressure exerted by the blood on the inside of the
artery wall
systolic large, max pressure within the cardiovascular system
produced when heart muscle contracts
diastolic small, resting pressure
common measure of stress response
heart rate expressed in beats per minute (BPM)
as interval between beats becomes shorter = heart is beating
faster
distressed, anxious fearful or more aroused than normal
cardiac reactivity increase in blood pressure and heart rate in
times of stress associated with type A personality behaviour
patterns characterized by impatience, competitiveness, hostility
o brain activity
electroencephalogram (EEG)
measures brain activity via electrodes to determine areas of brain
activity
participant can be asleep, awake but relaxed or doing a task
such measures can provide info about patterns of activation in
various regions of the brain may be associated with different
types of information processing tasks
personality psychologists interested in whether diff regions of the
brain show diff activity for diff people
evoked potential technique brain EEG measured but participant given
stimulus (light or tone) measures responses
fMRI functional magnetic resonance imaging
non-invasive
used for mapping structure and functions
Study by Canli and colleagues
o Personality is associated with brain reactivity to emotional
stimuli correlates with degree of brain activity in
response to + or images
o Neuroticism increased frontal activation of images
o Extraversion increased frontal brain activation to +
images
Deyoung used Big 5 to predict which areas of the brain would
be responsible for generating the behaviours or responses
relevant to each trait
o Criticisms size of region is not correlated with increased
functioning of that region
o Other measures
Blood and saliva
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Description
Personality Midterm 2 Chapter 7 Psychological approaches Traumatic brain injury can lead to changes in personality o Decreased ability to control impulses o Higher impulsivity Disruption of frontal lobes (control centre) Can be measured reliably and mechanically Characteristics functioning of organ systems o Nervous (brains and nerves), cardiac (heart, arteries, veins), muscoskeletal Diff in physiological make can make a diff in psychological functioning o Sensitive nervous system = sensitive to loud sounds and therefore introverted Theoretical bridge o Condition (audience) personality trait (shyness) psychological response (anxiety) psychological indicator (heart rate) behaviour (avoidance) o Researchers must be able to build the theoretical bridge between personality dimensions of interests and physiological variables Physiological measures Emotional reactivity intensity and persistence of emotion in response to stimuli o Thought to be elevated among those who self injure negative events + stressful tasks o 2 groups those who have history of self injury and those who dont people with history have elevated skin conductance and more negative emotional reactivity to stress also quit game soon lower distress tolerance o mot common physiological measures obtained from electrodes from surface on skin non invasive no discomfort restricted movement telemetry electrical signals sent through radio waves, not wired 3 physiological measures o electro-dermal activity skin conductance even before sweating is available small amount of electricity because of water some people show in the absence of external stimuli some rated high on anxiety and neuroticisms appears to have sympathetic nervous system that is in a state of chronic activation o cardiovascular activity heart and associated blood vessels blood pressure, heart rate blood pressure pressure exerted by the blood on the inside of the artery wall systolic large, max pressure within the cardiovascular system produced when heart muscle contracts diastolic small, resting pressure common measure of stress response heart rate expressed in beats per minute (BPM) as interval between beats becomes shorter = heart is beating faster distressed, anxious fearful or more aroused than normal cardiac reactivity increase in blood pressure and heart rate in times of stress associated with type A personality behaviour patterns characterized by impatience, competitiveness, hostility o brain activity electroencephalogram (EEG) measures brain activity via electrodes to determine areas of brain activity participant can be asleep, awake but relaxed or doing a task such measures can provide info about patterns of activation in various regions of the brain may be associated with different types of information proce
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