SOAN 2120 Study Guide - Final Guide: Null Hypothesis, Squared Deviations From The Mean, Central Limit Theorem

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What are the two research methods?
Qualitative and Quantitative
What are Qualitative methods?
They are methods in which we generate the data
They are done through interviews and field research
They give non numerical data
What are Quantitative methods?
They are done through survey research, which then you get numerical values
Applied statistics is done through quantitative methods
What are examples of computer softwares?
What the two parts of social science?
1. Social theory: encompassed by Karl Marx, Max W Weber and Emile Durkheim. They govern the
way in which the world works. They deal with an intellectual part through theoretical perspectives
(the way in which we develop our own theories and harnish critical learning. You gain knowledge
for the sake of learning.
2. Research: You develop skills for employment (concrete skills)
What are some examples of research methods within employment?
Health\hospitals (they want in depth interviews of the patients they are treating)
Private sector businesses (focus groups
Experimental Research
Health and hospitals
Survey Research
-Business\organizations - large scale research
What theorist contributed to social thought?
-Marx Weber
-Karl Marx
-Emile Durkheim
Who believed in Conflict theory?
Karl Marx
Who believed in functionalism?
Emile Durkheim
Who believed in Symbolic Interactionism?
Max Weber
What is conflict theory?
Conflict theory sees society being organized between conflict. There are competing groups (the haves
and have nots). There is class struggle. Conflict theorists believe that the power imbalance grows. They
believe that there should be equality of result (at the end of the day everyone is equal)
What is functionalism?
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Society exists because they are functional (they serve a purpose). When these functions are no longer
possible they come together to find a solution. On the issue of inequality, it is not important that everyone
is equal but rather we must provide the same opportunity to those in society
Functionalism can be defined by the two following words: consensus and functional
What is an example that illustrates the idea of equality of opportunity from a functional
perspective vs Conflict perspective?
Conflict theorists arge 90% of university professors in the natural sciences are male. This is problematic
because 50% of the population is female. In the end, gender distribution should be equal
Functionalist: 90% of prison pop is male- their opportunities should be the same
What does conflict theory and functionalism have in common?
They examine life at the macro level
What is symbolic interactionism?
This view focuses on the micro level and the individual level. The focus is on symbolism and the
meanings that are behind people's behaviour. They want to know why people do what they do and what
behaviour is generated. They want to know each individual's perception of reality because it is what
governs behaviour
What data does conflict theory use?
Quantitative and qualitative data
What data does functionalism use?
Quantitative data?
What data does symbolic interactionism use?
Qualitative data
What are methodologies?
How we generate and analyze the data
What are the two types of theories?
1. Testable theories
2. Non Testable theories
What type of theory does marx have?
Non testable
What is Marx’s theory about social and economic change?
Marx's theory centered around capitalism. He argued that capitalism was the most powerful force on the
planet and the darkest. Over time he believed that the rich get richer and the poor get poorer. The
brougise owned everything while the proletarian worked at the expense of the wealthy. He thought there
would be fewer and fewer rich people that owned most of the resources of the world. He thought that the
working class would become education and create a class of themselves (Marx revolution) and they
would violently overthrow the elite. They would create a new social system called socialism and it would
result in communism. Marx theory is non testable as it is not subject to empirical testing. Psychoanalytic
theories cannot be tested
What is a theory?
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A theory is a general assertion about something. You do not test theory directly. You test it indirectly
through the hypothesis
What makes a theory testable?
A hypothesis
What is an example of a hypothesis?
Guelph students have higher grades on a standardized test than do students from other universities
What are the quantitative research methods in testing theories?
To recall, quantitative research is data generated through numerical values and this is done through
experiments and survey research
What are experimental designs?
They provide us with a controlled environment and consist of three stages: the pre test, treatment and
post test
What is an example where you can obtain qualitative data and at the end get numerical values to
obtain quantitative data?
Testing increases feelings of happiness
Hypothesis: group one and two will be happier than group 3
Measure Happiness- video camera- amount of time smiling (qualitative data)
There are 25 people in each group and the experiment tracks how long they smile. At the end of this, they
get numerical values (quantitative data)
What is survey research?
Survey research is quantitative research. It does not manipulate the subjects. The information is
converted into numerical values in which they analyze. Each question on the survey represents a variable
What is a variable?
Anything that varies
What are the types of variables? ***
1. Quantitative variables
1. Continuous
2. Numerical
3. Ie: education (years of schooling) and income (dollars)
2. Categorical Variables
1. No rank order
2. Non numerical
3. Example: religion
What are some examples of quantitative variables?
Hours watching television per week, hours worked per week, and age in years
What are some examples of categorical variables?
Gender (male, female)
Field of study (arts, humanities, and business)
Province (Ontario, Quebec, Manitoba)
What are ordinal level variables?
Variables on a continuous scale
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