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SOAN 2120- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 32 pages long!)


Department
Sociology and Anthropology
Course Code
SOAN 2120
Professor
David Walters
Study Guide
Final

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U of G
SOAN 2120
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Soan2120
Sept28
Standard deviants
Whatever comes before the decimal point is stem.
3 (Stem) .94 (leaf)
stem=vertical on the table
lead=horizontal
-stems in ascending order vertically
-too many of them? two rows for each stems, two rows of leaves
-example: 0 to 4 and 5 to 9
population = parameters
sample = statistics
measures of central tendency
-mean, median and mode
mean: average of the data set, take all the data, add it up and divide it up to however many
data there are
population mean: greek letter lower case letter U
x
i= what value to begin with
xi=what part of the data set to use
what parts of the data set to use: i=1
n: number of values in the data set
i=1 : means start with 1
sigma of x means add all values in data set // then divide with N
sigma is add
z: reminds you to use values from the data set
i: tells you which values to starts with
n: is the number of value in the data set
median: the number in the middle
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even numbers? The ones in the between like 11,12 = median would be 11.5
mode: most frequently occuring number
how spread out the data is = measures of variability
range: highest value lowest value
deviation: how far a measurement is from the mean or
deviation: x - x with on top (mean)
variance: mean of population is lower case u vs mean of sample is x with on top
population variance is o2
standard deviation:
z-scores
- Every observation can be converted to a z-score
- Z-scores can indicate whether an observation is statistically significantly different from
the mean
- Z-scores can be positive or negative. Negative = less than the mean vs positive = more
than the mean
How it works?
- A x-sore tells us ho ay sd’s a oseratio is fro the ea
- 95% all observations plus or minus 2 standard deviations of the mean
- 99% of all observation lie within plus or minus 2.6 standard deviations of the mean
thus,
- if a oseratio’s z-score is plus or minus 2 standard deviation from the mean, then
(p<.0.5) 95%
- if a oseratio’s z-score is more than plus or minus 2.6 standard deviation from the
mean then (p<0.1) 99%
how do we know if an individual is statistically significant different from the mean?
- First we calculate a mean
- Then we calculate a variance/ standard deviation
- Calculate a z-score for the individual
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