SOAN 2120 Study Guide - Final Guide: Central Tendency, Confidence Interval, Experiment

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SOAN 2120 EXAM REVIEW
Chapter 4 - Quantitative methods (4 questions on final exam)
Mean
average
measure of central tendency
add up all the scores, then divide by the number of scores
Median
Middle number
measure of central tendency
the middle point the 50th percentile - or the point where half the cases are above it, and half the
cases are below it
Mode
Most occurring number
measure of central tendency
can have more than one mode
Bimodal
A distribution with two modes
with two numbers that occur the most frequent
Multimodal
a distribution with more than one mode
can have 5 modes lets say
Normal distribution
A bell shaped frequency distribution
peak in the center, identical curving slopes on either side
3 measures of central tendency are equal
Skewed distribution
a frequency distribution that is not normal (not bell shaped)
More cases are at one end of the extremes
- If the distribution is skewed more to the left = positive; mean > median
- If the distribution is skewed more to the right = negative; mean < median
Code Book
A document that describes the procedure of coding variables and their location in a format for
computers
Pre-coding
- Placing the code categories on the questionnaire
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- (ex: 1 for man, 2 for woman, 3 for trans, 4 for other)
- If a researcher does not pre-code, the first step after collecting data is to create a
codebook
Bivariate
Bivariate statistics
statistical measures that involve only two variables
Correlation
Two variables are associated with one another
Independence
opposite of correlation
the absence of a relationship between 2 variables
Measures of Variation
Range
- a measure of dispersion for one variable indicating the highest and the lowest
scores
Percentile
- a measure of dispersion for one variable that indicates the percentage of cases
at or below a score or point
Standard deviation
- a measure of dispersion for one variable that indicates an average
distance between the scores and the mean
Z-scores
-the standard deviation and the mean are used to create z-scores
- used to express scores on a frequency distribution in terms of a number of standard deviations
from the mean
-(is it above or below the mean?)
Bivariate Table
- Presents the same information as a scatter plot, however in table format
Cross-tabulation
the cases are organized in the table on the basis of two variables at the same time
shows the percentage of cases at the intersection of categories of the two variables
Contingency table
a table showing the distribution of one variable in rows and another in columns
Used to study the association between the two variables
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There are 3 ways to percentage a table:
by row
by column
by the total
Marginals
The totals in a contingency table, outside the body of a table
Measure of association
A single number that expresses the strength, and often the direction of a relationship.
condenses information about bivariate relationship into a single number
Statistical significance
- Means the results are not likely due to chance factors
Level of statistical significance
- A way of measuring the degree to which a statistical relationship is likely due to chance
- 0.05 = you can be 95% confident that the results are due to a real relationship in the
population, not chance factors
Type 1 error
- Occurs when the researcher says a relationship exists, when in fact none exists
- Falsely rejecting the null hypothesis
Type 2 error
- Occurs when a researcher says a relationship does not exist, when in fact it does
- Falsely accepting the null hypothesis
Chapter 6- Field Research (7 Questions on final exam)
Ethnography and ethnomethodology
Ethnography
- an approach to field research that emphasizes providing a very detailed
description of a different culture from the viewpoint of an insider in that culture to permit a
greater understanding of it
- Ethno means people/folk and graphy refers to describing something
Ethnography is often considered a methodology rather than a method
Methodology
- a collection of data collection and analysis approaches that are linked
together through an overarching theoretical orientation
- Cultural knowledge includes explicit (what we know and talk about) and tacit knowledge
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