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SOANCHAPTERSUMMARIESMIDTERM2 (1) (3).pdf

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Department
Sociology and Anthropology
Course
SOAN 2111
Professor
Linda Hunter
Semester
Fall

Description
** STILL MISSING SUMMARIES FOR WEEKS 8 and 9 Week 10 Summaries: McDonald: Pg. 105-115 Mary Wollstonecraft · Background Information - Born in London - Mary’s father drank excessively and abusive his wife - At the age of 15 Mary left home without consent - Later she helped her sister, who married young, to leave her abusive husband - She was self supporting from the age of 19, working as a companion, teacher, head of her own school, and governess in a noble family in Ireland - Learned her radical politics from a group of Dissenters in the same town as her school, Newington Green - Then turned to writing for her living, translating from French, Italian and German for the radical publisher, Joseph Johnson, reviewing and publishing her own · Publications - Her first book was Thought on the Education of Daughters (1786) - Her book gave advice on infant care and teaching - Next she translated Of the Importance of Religious Opinions (1788) by Jacques Necker - Fame came with A Vindication of the Rights of Men, a fast and furious defense of the French Revolution, supporting the position taken by her friend Richard Price - In 1792 she published her second vindication on the rights of woman - Moved to France and had a baby with Gilbert Imlay - Did research for her comprehensive book Historical and Moral View of the Origin and Progress of the French Revolution - Her letters written in Sweden, Norway and Denmark were well received as social and political observations - Later Married anarchist theorist Godwin - She became pregnant but died after giving birth from infection - Her daughter Mary Godwin became a writer and is known for her story of the graduate student Frankenstein and his monster - Wollstonecraft’s first daughter committed suicide young - Wollstonecraft learned her radical politics from religious dissenters but remained an adherent of the church · Mary Wollstonecraft’s Arguments - Many of Wollstonecraft’s points were made earlier by Gournay and Astell - Wollstonecraft was not the only audible voice raised to assert that women, as well as men, had an inalienable right to freedom, that they too were human beings - But she did go further than her in opening up the issue of political rights for women and in specifying the demand for economic independence and access to traditional male occupations - Her life and work inspired great English novelist Virginia Woolf and the pioneer American anthropologist Ruth Benedict - Wollstonecraft is now standard fare in women’s studies - Her advocacy of empiricism is still little known - Her second vindication was a radical manifesto for women’s equality - A Vindication of the Rights of Men was dedicated to Talleyrand, defender of the French Revolution and author of a report on a new system of public education for France – his proposal would separate girls from boys at age eight - Wollstonecraft attempted to have him reconsider this - Argued women should be able to advance, instead of retarding “the progress of those glorious principles that give a substance to morality” - Who made men the exclusive judge, if woman partake with him the gift of reason - Like Astell Wollstonecraft understood the reason as the basis of the difference between humans and animals and a gift of God - Wollstonecraft argued the disabilities of women’s education, not defects in nature, as the cause of their inferiority - These disabilities were the result of bad institutions - Both women and the French population, given better education and a better social environment, would perform better - Education could change the natural laws of humanity for better or worse - Time would tell, once a women could get a “masculine” education, whether sex difference were fundamental or accidental - Men who have been placed in similar situations have acquired a similar character…men of genius and talents have started out of a class in which women have never yet been placed - Girls should be given the same experiences as boys - Wollstonecraft also wanted women to be able to study the art of healing and be physicians as well as nurses, study history and government and run farms and businesses - The ability of women to earn their own subsistence was the true definition of independence - When absolutely dependent on their husband’s women were forced into being cunning selfish and mean - Wollstonecraft also sets out her views on the treatment of animals - “Humanity to animals”, which was not a national virtue, should be inculcated as part of national education - The ability of humans to reason did not endanger any right to treat other creatures cruelly - Wollstonecraft claimed for the right to vote in a seemingly casual digression in the Vindication of Right of Women: women out to have representatives instead of being arbitrarily governed without having any direct share allowed them in the deliberations of government - She argued against Rousseau’s contention that women controlled men through their feminine charms - Women, she held, were degraded by the trivial attentions paid them by men, while otherwise being kept in ignorance - She wanted equality for all people not just her sex - She belived the military men were sent into the world before their minds have been stored with knowledge or fortified principles - She examined the poor in France and showed how laws were the champion of property not of life and liberty - Wollstonecraft said the fact that nature made people unequal, in physical and mental powers, did not justify inequality in society but gave government one of its purposes; to destroy this inequality in society but gave government one of its purposes: to destroy this inequality and protect the weak - She stated laws could be changed and property laws should be to make for a more equal division of property among all children of a family Zeitlin: Chapter 4; Perfectibility through Education Rousseau’s Emile—and Sophy - Rousseau is famous for his political theory and for his ideas on education - Advocated maternal breast-feeding and oppression to swaddle infants - Began fashionable to “Enlightened” parents - Rousseau’s final work sets forth his principles for the education of woman - He maintains that the natural differences between the exes requires that they be educated differently - This met with vehement opposition in the work of Wollstonecraft - The mother’s role in child rearing is fundamental, since a child’s earliest education is most important and it, undoubtedly, women’s work - Education is not just a matter of preserving the child’s life; that is not enough, for he must be taught how to preserve his own life when he becomes a man, how to bear the ups and downs of fortune, how to live, if need be, in the snows of an icy, wind swept terrain or on the edge of a scorching desert - The human being is everywhere subject to control, constraint and compulsion à He is less free and more constrained than he was in the womb - The origin of shameless and unnatural customs emerged with the refusal of women to fulfill their first duty and to nurse their own children, entrusting them instead to hired strangers who swaddle their employers children to save themselves trouble - The upper-class women has not only ceased to suckle her own child, but she also shirks the main duty of motherhood; there is no substitute for a mother’s love, which the child needs even more then her milk - The real nurse is and should be the mother can the real teacher, as the child grows and develops, is the father - Let the mother and father agree on the ordering of their duties and method, and the child will learn effectively from both - Freedom of movement is essential, for this is how the child learns difference between self and not self à His mood soon distinguishes between the pain caused by things and the pain caused by other individuals à Experience helps him develop his innate sense of the difference between justice and injustice à He perceives the pain inflicted upon him as unjust and gives rise to anger and resentment - Enters second phase of life à No longer cries in pain because he can now say “It hurts me” - Process of acquiring wisdom through experience and striving for liberty has began - Emile (boy Rousseau referred to in his work) is ready to begin to learn the difference between two kinds of dependence 1) Dependence on thing, which is the work of nature àDependence on things being non-moral, does no injury to liberty and begets no vices 2) Dependence on men, which is the work of society à Dependence on men gives rise to every kind of vice, and through this master and slave become mutually depraved - Words command and obey will be excluded from Emiles vocabulary and he will learn primarily through experience, not by means of verbal lessons - His earliest notion of justice will come from reflection on what is due to him and not on what he owns to others - He must posses something of his own so that he may grasp the idea of property - Must learn the most important moral lesson: Never hurt anybody - Emile’s body is to be strengthened through daily rigorous exercise à The senses limbs and bodily organs must be strong and healthy for they are tools of the intellect - Emiles diet will require special attention à Preference is for natural foods ex. Milk, fruit, vegetables - Emile is ready to transform sensations into ideas once he hits puberty à Do not jump to quickly to object of sense to objects of thought à Stay within the realm of environmental experiences - Avoid substituting a symbol for the thing signified unless it is impossible to show the thing in itself - He’ll learn about the interdependence of human beings and that the exchange of goods and services is essential in any society - Rousseau states that needlework and dressmaking is to be done by women and cripples who are obliged to work at such trades à Why employ intelligent men on such work? - Rousseau decides Emile will learn carpentry--- clean, useful trade that’s strengthens the muscles and calls for skill, industry, creativity and taste - Emile in growing adolescence feels the impulses of nature and the need for a companion - His first sediment is friendship not love - Emile must learn to put no trust in his good health and fortune since it may be temporary - When he looks at the rich and compares them with the poor he sees an essential difference à The rich man’s ills are largely of his own making but the poor mans come from the external hardships fate has imposed on him—hunger, fatigue Ect - Emile now recognizes that it is in fact fate that has placed these human beings in such circumstances and thus they are, on the whole, no less wise than he The Creed Of A Savoyard Priest - Rousseau himself acknowledged in a letter to a friend in his Reverias du Promeneur solitaire that the “profession of faith” was his own, and that it was his aim to set down the basic religious moral principles with which he would guide his conduct for the rest of his life - France at the time was split between two bitterly opposed, religious camps: the intolerant and authoritarian Catholic Church, on the hand and the severe critics of religion on the other - Rousseau’s friends among the Philosophes were deists, materialist and atheists “and it was to a large extent the disquieting, ethical implications of the more extreme materialist views which prompted him to seek to clarify and formulate his own religious position”. - Rousseau begins by rejecting both the stance of the church and the attitude of the Philosophes who were no less dogmatic in their assertions on materialism - That the world is governed by a wise and powerful will was therefore fundamental to Rousseau’s creed à As for the human being the motive of power of all his action lies in the will of a free creature à The human being is active and free and thus acts of his own accord - For Rousseau evil is the result of human beings failure to live according to God’s ethical and moral teaching, the failure to construct a society that will preserve humanity’s original goodness. à In these terms Rousseau rejects the doctrine of “original sin” - Justice uses self-inflicted ills to punish the crimes, which have deserved them - The real duties of religion are independent of human institutions - A righteous heart is the true temple of the Godhead - The essence of religion is to love God above all things and to love our neighbor as our self; there is no religion, which absolves us from our moral duties Sophy, OR Woman - For Rousseau it is the divergent nature of the sexes that should determine the form and content of education - The man he declares should be strong and active - Women should be weak and passive - Women is specially made for mans delight - If man in his turn ought to be pleasing in her eyes, the necessity is less urgent, his virtue is his strength, and he pleases because he is strong - This is not the law of love but it is the law of nature, which is older than love itself - Rousseau acknowledges the distinctive power of women à The different constitutions of the sexes make it plain that the man seems to be mater but is dependent on the women and is an inexorable law of nature - Women’s biological makeup at least in her youth always reminds her of her sex and her special functions à She needs care during pregnancy and when she gives birth and nurses her children - Women do wrong to complain of the inequality of man-made laws à The inequality is not of mans making or at any rate it is not the result of mere prejudice, but of reason - IF someone reminds Rousseau that women are not always bearing children, he responds, granted yes that is their proper business - For Rousseau, if men and women are unlike in constitution and temperament, their education must be different - Women is to be man’s helpmeet, not handmaid - Women should learn to think, to will, to love, to cultivate their minds as well as their persons - Women should learn many things but only such things as are suitable - Women’s education must be planned in relation to man à To be pleasing in his sight à To win his respect and love, to train him in childhood, to tend him in manhood, to counsel and console, to make his life pleasant and happy - Rousseau acknowledges that for both exes the training of the body is desirable and that it must precede and accompany the cultivation of the mind à But the aim of physical training for boys and girls is not the same; in the one case it is the development of strength, in the other, of grace, not that these qualities should be peculiar to either sex, but that their relative values should be different - Girls should be kept busy at sexually appropri
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