Defining Variables and Attributes
Variables must have 2 qualities S
1. Attributes must be exhaustive
2. Attributes must be mutually exclusive
Ratio x and /
Interval + and –
Ordinal < and >
Nominal = and =
Levels of Measurement (triangle/pyramid) ^
Levels of measurement
Variables whose attributes have only characteristics of
exhaustiveness (jointly exhaustive) and mutual exclusiveness
i.e a variable with just discrete categories cannot be ranked.
E.g gender, religious affiliation , political party affiliation, birthplace,
college, hair colour.
Offer names or labels for characteristics
Allcan say about 1 people is that they are either the same of
Example- nominal measures
.variable” dog breed”
German shepherd is different than an Australian cattle dog
CANNOT say one is more or less “dog breedy” than the other.
Jointly Exhaustive and Mutually Exclusive
Jointly exhaustive: every possible observation can be classified into
a attribute of the variable Categories shoule be sufficient so that all observations can fit into
one of them.
Mutually exclusive: every observation must be classified into one
and only one attribute
Observation shout NOT be able to fit into two or more attributes.
Levels of Measurement
Variables with attributes that can be logically rank ordered;
different attributes represent relatively more or less of the variable.
Discrete categories which can be ranked
No fixed distance between attributes of variable
E.g social class, alienation, prejudice, intellectual sophistication
Can say if people are same or different (nominal) and can say 1 is
“more: than the other (ordinal)
Variables with attributes that have meaningful distance separating
the attributes: logical distance between attributes can be expressed
in meaningful standard intervals
DO not have an absolute zero point
E.g Celius temperature scale, constructed measures such as
standaarized .. FINISHHHHH
Variables with attributes based on a tr