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University of Guelph
Sociology and Anthropology
SOAN 2120
Scott Brown

SOAN 2120 Exam Review Chapter 1 Attributes Characteristics of people or thingsDeduction The logical model in which specific expectations of hypotheses are developed on the basis of general principles Starting from the general principle that all deans are meanies you might anticipate that this one wont let you change courses This anticipation would be the result of deduction Dependent variable A variable assumed to depend on or be caused by another called the independent variable If you find that income is partly a function of amount of formal education income is being treated as a dependent variableIdiographic An approach to explanation in which we seek to exhaust the idiosyncratic causes of a particular condition or event Imagine trying to list all the reasons why you chose to attend your particular university Given all those reasons its difficult to imagine youre making any other choiceIndependent variable A variable with values that are not problematical in an analysis but are taken as simply given An independent variable is presumed to cause or determine a dependent variable If we discover that religiosity is partly a function of genderwomen are more religious than mengender is the independent variable and religiosity is the dependent variable Note that any given variable might be treated as independent in one part of an analysis and dependent in another part of it Religiosity might become an independent variable in the explanation of crimeInduction The logical model in which general principles are developed from specific observations Having noted that Jews and Catholics are more likely to vote Liberal than Protestants are you might conclude that religious minorities in Canada are more affiliated with the Liberal party and explain why This would be an example of inductionNomothetic An approach to explanation in which we seek to identify a few causal factors that generally impact a class of conditions or events Imagine the two or three key factors that determine which universities students choose such as proximity reputation and so forthRepetition Repetition of a research study in order to either confirm the findings of a previous study or bring them into question 2 A technical term used in connection with the elaboration model to refer to the empirical outcome of the persistence of the observed initial relationship between two variables when a control variable is held constant This supports the idea that the original zeroorder relationship is genuineTheory A systematic explanation for the observations that relate to a particular aspect of life juvenile delinquency for example or perhaps social stratification or political revolutionVariables Logical groupings of attributes The variable gender is made up of the attributes male and femaleChapter 2axioms or postulatesFundamental assertions taken to be true on which a theory is groundedHypothesis A specified testable expectation about empirical reality that follows from a more general proposition more generally an expectation about the nature of things derived from a theory It is a statement of something that ought to be observed in the real world if the theory is correctHypothesis testing The determination of whether the expectations that a hypothesis represents are indeed found to exist in the real worldMacrotheory A theory aimed at understanding the big picture of institutions whole societies and the interactions among societies Karl Marxs examination of the class struggle is an example of macrotheoryMicrotheory A theory aimed at understanding social life at the intimate level of individuals and their interactions Examining how the play behaviour of girls differs from that of boys would be an example of microtheoryOperational definition The concrete and specific definition of something in terms of the operations by which observations are to be categorized The operational definition of earning an A in this course might be correctly answering at least 90 percent of the final exam questionsOperationalization One step beyond conceptualization Operationalization is the process of developing operational definitionsthat is specifying the exact operations involved in measuring a variableParadigm A model or framework for observation and understanding which shapes both what we see and how we understand it The conflict paradigm causes us to see social behaviour one way the interactionist paradigm causes us to see it differentlyPropositions specific conclusions about the relationships among concepts that are derived from the axiomatic groundworkChapter 3Anonymity Anonymity may be guaranteed in a research project when neither the researchers nor the readers of the findings can identify a given response with a given respondentConfidentiality A research project guarantees confidentiality when the researcher can identify a given persons responses but promises not to do so publiclyDebriefing Interviewing subjects following their participation in the research project to learn about their experiences and reactions to their participation Negative reactions can be a special concern If it is determined that participation generated any problems for the subject there is an attempt to correct such problemsInformed consent A norm in which research subjects base their voluntary participation in a study on a full understanding of the potential risks involvedChapter 4Census An enumeration of the characteristics of some population A census is often similar to a survey with the difference that the census collects data from all members of the population and the survey is limited to a sampleCohort Study A study in which some specific subpopulation or cohort is studied over time although data may be collected from different members in each set of observations A study of the occupational history of the class of 1970 in which questionnaires were sent every five years for example would be a cohort studyCorrelation An empirical relationship between two variables such that a changes in one are associated with changes in the other or b particular attributes of one variable are associated with particular attributes of the other For example weight and height are said to be correlated because of the association between increases in height and increases in weight Correlation in
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