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Final Exam Review

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University of Guelph
SOC 1500
Karyn Freedman

Exam ReviewDivisions of LawProcedural Law Proper steps that must be used and rules that must be followed in any legal action Substantive Law Body of laws describes in our various codes and statutes Private Law Involves disputes between individual citizens and private companies Ex Tort Injury Property Contract Family Public Law Deals with relationship between state and individual Ex Constitutionalconstitution Administrative Gov Agencies Criminal Lawie Contains rules for enforcing criminal law eg rules police must follow when making an arrest Crime is defined asAn intentional act in violation of the criminal law code committed wihout defense or justification and sanctioned by the stateActus Reus Guilty act or physical element Mens Rea Guilty mind or intention Three reasons why public confidence is important for the functioning of the justice system Makes people trust the justice system Victims must have confidence so they will report the crime people may be discouraged to report criminal acts if they do not have confidence in the justice system There wont participate as a jury member or give evidence No procedural lawFactors that may influence changes in the crime rate1 Crime rates are report sensitive2 Crime rates are policingsensitive 3 Crime rates are definitionsensitive4 Crime rates are mediasensitive 5 The crime rate may really be changingCounting Crime and gender race age and place Gender gap in offendingwomen commit fewer and less serious offences than men Gender Convergence Gender gap narrowsGender Divergence Gender gap widens Gender Stability Gender gap remains unchangedJustice statistics by race Youth justice statisticsGeographical measure of crime Location Quotient Media Over dramatization of crime Crime wavesmoral panics Overreporting violent crime Neglecting white collar crimeCrime Myths Racial and ethnic minorities Youth Virtuous crimesMyth vs reality article 1 reinforce myth of ciolent juvenile superpredator 2 innocent random victim3 Juveniles should be feared 4 Girls are overrepresented as female offenders Conclusion Stresses that the media portrays an inaccurate picture of crime Crime waves devote attention to smallof crimes and create a false impression that crime is rampant child abduction serial killers motorcycle gamgleads to changes in law anti terrorism YCJA Overreporting violent crime If it bleeds it leads even though most crimes are NOT violent homicide accounting for more thanof all TV and newspaper crime stories even though it represents less than 1 of all crime p34 Skewed focus on street crime and bizare eventsPublic ignorance Crime Myth belief unproven or false that have accrued around a person phenomenon or institution rampant overly violent two examplesRacial and ethnic minorities subject of distorted treatment in media coveragenews pays more attention to white victims even though most crime is intraracialmedia offer racialized accounting of crime offenders as black victims as white eg Crime is randomanyone and everyone a possible target Criminal distinctive and identifiable from everyone elseVirtuousmore attention to crimes whose victims seem entirely innocent eg small children and wealthy white womenNews media coverage Failing t provide socialhistorical or statistical contextMisleading information eg not reporting declining crime rate
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