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Final

SOC2760 Final: Homicide Exam Complete Notes

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC 2760
Professor
Rob Shearer
Semester
Winter

Description
1 100 questions. 50 T/F , 50 M What Murder Says About the Society It Exists In ● murder is becoming a valid course of study in academia ● homicide as the backbone of history, war is legitimate homicide ● only recently have scholars began to look at what homicide reveals about society ● Halttunen looks at gothic homicide narrative as representation of shift in values, from Puritan values where murderer is sinner reflecting community of sinners, to secular values where murder is monster separate from society ● murder originally popular with criminologists and sociologists... two developments made murder appealing to historians and other scholars: development of new social history in 70s which argued for depictions of typically marginalized groups & renewed respect for narrative ● Monkkonen (part of Homicide Research Working Group) studies 200 years worth of homicide in NYC... sees homicide rates as reflecting social, economic, and technological factors ● murder has always sold... ie 1680s ministers used murder cases to distribute sermons ● new element- school shootings Davies, Chapt. 4   (1 question) How Common is Homicide? ● The FBI reported that in 2004, 16,137 individuals in the United States were murdered ● The number of homicides from 2004 reflects a 2.4% decrease from the year before in 2003 ● The FBI reports for 2005 indicated a 4.8% increase in homicide from the year 2004 ● The U.S. murder rate decreased from a rate of 5.7 homicide victims per 100,000 in 2003 to 5.5 per 100,000 in 2004 ● The data also shows a decrease of 0.8% from 2000 to 2004 while the number of homicides increased 3.5% during this same time period Determining the Homicide Rate: Homicide Rate= H/ (P/100,000) H= the number of homicides in a particular area P= the population in the particular area Homicide Trends ● The number of homicides in the United States has decreased 65.3% between 1991 and 2004, whereas the homicide victimization rate decreased 55% during this same time period 2 ● The 24,703 homicides recorded in 1991 was a record high for recorded homicides in the U.S. but was not the highest victimization rate ● The victimization rate peaked in 1981 with a victimization rate of 10.2 per 100,000 ● Homicide was the 14 leading cause of death in 2002 but dropped to the 15 leading cause of death for the year 2003 ● Circumstance Type ● The data on homicide collected by the FBI show that the circumstances were known for 65% of homicides that occurred in 2004 ● Homicides involving arguments makes up 43.9% of the homicides in which the circumstances were known =most common ● 22.8% of the known circumstances occurred along with another felony or robbery ● The National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) data indicated that drugs were involved in approximately 16% of homicides in 2004 with known circumstances Victim/Offender Relationship ● 55.9% were known to the police and when they were known, acquaintances were the most likely offenders with 23% of victims killed by acquaintances ● 13% killed by stranger, 9% were killed by their intimate partners and 8% were killed by family members (not including spouses) Sex ● Homicide is predominantly a male activity ● More than 3 out of 4 victims or 78% of U.S. homicide offenders in 2004 were male ● 89% of those who kill males and 90% of those who kill females are men Age ● Peak age for homicide offending in 2004 was 20 to 24 years ● Those ages 17-29 accounted for the majority (57.6%) of homicide offending in which the age of the offender was known ● Less than 5% were older than 54 or younger than 17 years Race ● In 2004, 48.6% of homicide offenders were white, 47.5% wereAfricanAmerican and less than 4% were categorized as an other or unknown race ● 3,727 white victims (52.9%) in 2004, AfricanAmerican victims are a close second with 3,067 (43.6%) ● The rate of homicides is much higher forAfricanAmericans ● The homicide victimization was six times higher for African Americans as compared to white ● Homicide offending forAfricanAmericans were 7 times higher than the rates of offending in 2004 for whites 3 Years of Potential Life Lost to Homicide ● Unintentional injury was the number one cause of years lost in the U.S. before the age of 65 ● Homicide is at number 6 (unintentional injury is at number one) Weapon Use ● Firearms are used in 66% of homicides with handguns as the most popular choice ● Hands or feet used to kill someone is classified as a personal weapon Community Types ● Most homicides and highest rate of homicide occurred in the most densely populated areas ● 82.9% of the population in the United States live in Metropolitan StatisticalAreas Regional ● Homicide is more common in cities as well as in the South ● The three cities with the highest homicide rates are New Orleans, Baltimore and Detroit. Cross-National Comparisons ● The homicide rate in the United States remains consistently higher than the homicide rate in many other countries ● *Overall rates and trends reveal that homicide is decreasing in the United States Davies, Chapt. 6  (20 questions)      Chapter 6­ Social and Cultural Explanations for Homicide   v  Some criminologists have a sociological approach and look at explanations for crime outside of individuals to explain  criminal behaviour Ø  Our environment influences our actions Ø  Different groups within society have different rates of criminal offending v  Men are more likely than women to be both offenders and victims v  Southerners have higher rates of homicide than northeasterners v  African American and Poor people have higher chance Classical School Perspective v  Cesare Beccaria­ argued that people are rational and hedonistic and that they possess free will Ø  Individuals make decisions on how they act Ø  Weigh the costs and benefits  v  Rational choice theory is close with deterrence theory Social Disorganization v  More complicated than individuals making choices 4 v  Crime is more prevalent in urban areas  v  Higher crime rates in the transitional zone (worse housing conditions, more poverty) v  Not the people as much as the structural conditions of the area in which they live ­Shaw and McKay (1942) studied the ‘transitional zone’ in Chicago which has high delinquency and crime rates. They  watched the population change over time and noticed that no matter what ethnic group was the majority the zone still has  the most crime.  ­”Transitional zone” also had poor housing, poverty, less community and fewer intact families = disorganization  v Criticized: Relied on official data (probably biased) and failed to explain that not everyone who lives in these zones  commits a crime and people outside of these areas still commit crime v Krivo and Peterson (2000) find that greater economic disadvantage and low homeownership rates are correlated with  higher homicide rates Differential Association Theory v  Sutherland  v  Influenced by social disorganization v  Set out to explain why crime was more popular in poor areas v  Crime is learned and imitated from others (gang killings and gang culture) v  Family and peers influence our ideas about the law v  Exposure to violence in childhood v  Doesn’t prove this theory but gives ideas that we learn violence Social Control Theories v  Assume people will commit crimes if left to their own devices v  Argue that something must exist to control people from doing crime v  Durkheim was first control theorist Ø  Theory of Anomie­ people would commit more homicide because families ties are becoming weaker with a larger society  (industrialization)  Ø  Less law violations in rural areas v  Hirschi created social bond theory Ø  The more connected we are to others in society, the less likely we will commit crime Ø  Our bonds to society are formed by our socialization Ø  First bond is attachment­ how close you are to others, involvement­ how much time you spend doing activities,  commitment­ how dedicated you are at accomplishing your goals, belief­ you think the laws should be upheld A General Theory of Crime v  Hirschi & Gottfredson v  Combinations of low self­control and opportunity that leads to criminal behaviour v  In regards to low self­control it is because of absent or poor parenting, this causes children to never learn to set goals,  and never learn to control their temper, as a result, they act without thought. v  Could explain spur­of­the­moment murders (killing your wife for being in bed with another man, or killing when a cashier  doesn’t hand over money in a robbery) v  Planned murders are difficult to explain with general theory of crime Neutralization Theory 5 v  Sykes & Matza v  Also called drift theory v  Used to explain juvenile delinquency v  Discovered that kids can drift in and out of bad behaviours v  Youth try to justify their actions­ these are called techniques of neutralization­ these are applied before the crime is  committed Ø  Denial of Responsibility­ “it’s not my fault” Ø  Denial of Injury­ “No harm is done” Ø  Denial of a Victim­ “they deserved it” Ø  Condemnation of the Condemners­  “They do it too or do worse” Ø  Appeal to Higher Loyalties­ “I had to do it for my family/wife/brothers” v  To commit an act, you only have to employ one of these techniques Murder as Righteous Slaughter v  Katz v  “seductions of crime” v  When killers and victims know each other, the killer justifies the crime in their mind v  Believe they are doing what is good v  The killer turns personal humiliation into rage v  Killers see themselves pushed by forces greater than themselves ­> denial of responsibility Correlates of Homicide v  Race, sex, social class, and where we live can affect our chances of being an offender or victim v  Rates of homicide victimization and offending is highest in African Americans, Southerners, men, lower­class, and US  residence Region and Homicide: Southern Subculture of Violence v  White men have learned that backing down is weak and unmanly v  Any affront to a southern white man must be answered with violence v  Homicide is more common in the south Lifestyle and Routine Activities Theory v  Odds of being a murder victim are higher for some and not for others v  Lifestyle discusses how an individual may place himself at risk v  Routine activity theory suggests that there are three elements required for crime: a motivated offender; the availability of a  suitable target; and the absence of effective guardians Men and Violence: Feminist Perspectives on Masculinity v  Feminist criminologist began to address issues of gender in crime research in 1970s, but not until the 90’s was it really  explored v  Males are more likely to commit homicide than females Ø  Fact: nearly 9 out of 10 people who murder are men v  Men use violence as a way to control others and boost their masculinity v  Some men are quicker to use violence than others v  Men’s use of violence is related to the position they hold in society and if they have other means of control (money)  6 Social Stratification and Homicide v  Research shows a link between crime and economic conditions v  Crime rates tend to be high in areas where people are economically disadvantaged (poor communities) v  This is true for both black and white communities   Why Do We Kill So Often in the United States? v  Those that live in the US have a higher risk of homicide than those in many other countries Ø  Has one of the highest rates in the world v  Barken gives reasons for this Ø  Economic stratification­ higher income inequality = higher homicide Ø  Many people own guns, which may be more likely to cause death Ø  A history of violence in the culture The Role of Alcohol and Drug Use in Homicidal Behaviour v  Parker & Auerhahn v  This has not been widely studied v  Evidence suggests a strong relationship v  Evidence shows that over half of the homicides involve offender or victims under the influence of drugs or alcohol. Ø  Alcohol more frequently v  Still investigating more ideas in regards to the relationship Davies, Chapt. 7  (3 questions) **Confrontational Homicide• Confrontational homicide is the most common homicide in the world Definition: •    Confrontational Homicide: those that begin with a public altercation viewed as a contest of honor by at least one  participant – the altercation quickly evolves into violence and ends in death Honor Contest Violence: confrontational homicides tend to occur in places such as bars, parties, parking lots and nearby streets  and alleys – the participants are often intoxicated or under the influence or alcohol or drugs. o The offender and victims are most  commonly male§ The incident that leads to the lethal violence is seen as a threat to the reputation of one of them • Gender and Confrontational Homicide  • Women make up less than 15% of homicide offenders Data On Confrontational Homicide  • 1/3 of homicides are confrontational • Homicides resulting from arguments remain most frequently cited circumstances for known circumstances History of Confrontational Homicide • Duels = arguments between two individuals that usually ends with the people ending in a fight (one  person gets killed) Victim­Precipitated Homicide 7 • Wolfgang found it was not uncommon for the victim of a homicide to have been involved in the events that  led to his death – sometimes the victim initiated the incident that resulted in their death o victim­precipitated homicide: incidents in which the victim was the first to  employ “physical force against the subsequent slayer” § victim precipitates and confrontational homicides can often be categorized as the same thing o victim precipitated are more likely to be male and African American than in non­victim precipitated  homicides • Almost one third of homicide offenders who were provoked by their victims were women  – most likely that these women were responding to men who initiated physical violence against  them  – would be violent towards the women cause the women challenged their masculinity or  disrespected them Homicide as a Situated Transition • Luckenbill, emphasized that homicide is often the result of seemingly inconsequential incidents that turn  into character contests o Most homicides are the result of a contest in which adversaries interact in a way that at least one of  them believed would keep him looking weak – called them “situated transactions” o Noted that very often both the offender and victim had an audience of onlookers who knew either one or  both of the men as lovers, friends, family or coworkers o Described that six stages through which the homicide situation progresses beginning with the initial  conflict and ending with the final move made by the offender after the death of his or her opponent (they  describe confrontational homicide) 1) Opening move: the victim does something that is viewed as an affront by the offender – the victim  could be making a disparaging remark, calling the offender a wimp or challenging his manhood o Most common move is a comment that the offender believes is offensive o Second most common move is when a victim refuses to do what an offender wants – the offender  interprets it as denial of his ability or right to command obedience o Third most common move the eventual offender finds a nonverbal gesture made by the victim to be  personally offensive (the offender believes this gesture is an insult to his sexual powers) 2) the interpretation of the event in the opening move as an affront: the offender views  whatever the victim has done as offensive – not necessarily the victim meant for it to be offensive; the key  to the second stage is the interpretation 3) having determined that the victim has affronted him the offender could excuse  or ignore the insult: the RETALIATORY MOVES – are the opening moves for the offender in which  he challenges the victim and in essence defines the situation as one in which violence may ensue 8 4) someone has their reputation on the line – that someone would have had to  stand up to the other person and fought back, thus saving his own reputation at  that point – or could have fled and apologized at the risk of being seen as weak 5) Forging of a working agreement: both victim and offender seem to be committed to battle –  during this stage that a weapon could be brought in and actual homicide occurs 6) final move by the offender ­ most common , would be the offender fleeing the scene; then the  offender would remain until the police arrives and in some cases the offender is held involuntarily by  observers • Luckenbill argues that homicide is not a one­sided event with an unwitting victim assuming  a passive role • Views homicide as a situated transaction – where each individuals has the opportunity to stop  the progression of the events but both, in attempt to save face, keep moving forward  Importance of Audience • The role of the audience influences if an argument is escalated or deescalated in a violent  manner • Most interpersonal aggression was a response to a perceived rule violation and is thus justified  by the aggressoro Males more likely than females to express their anger when insulted (which is  why confrontational homicide is more closely linked to males) • Felson determined that third parties affected aggressive interactions o If third parties prompted  the conflicts, the interactions tended to be more severe, which was particularly true when the  participants were both male  Confrontational Homicide and Cultures of Honor Subculture of Violence • Wolfgang introduced, subculture of violence; found that much of the violence among the  youth he studied was a relation to some trivial matter and that a young man who did not respond to  an affront with violence or aggression would be seen as weak • There is a subculture of violence among lower­class males – maintained that norms among  lower­class African American males were not completely different from the dominant culture o Within the sub­culture they grew up in they learned that the proper response to an insult was violence o Man’s masculinity would be questioned as would his honor if he did not stand up for himself (standing  up for oneself usually means that one be physically violent) • Violence is seen as normal and expected in certain situations among African Americans, and  sometimes their violence ends in death • Higher rates of homicide among African Americans are explained not only by greater levels of  structural disadvantage among African Americans but are also a reflection of advantages that  whites have over blacks in U.S. society (advantages include: higher home ownership rates, higher  educational levels, and higher average household incomes) 9 Southern Subculture of Honor • Explains violence by southern white men • Nisbet & Cohen, there is a “culture of honor” among white southern males – requires men to  stand up to affront to their honor Confrontational Homicide: Is it a Man’s World? • In 1970’s women started appearing on the FBI’s most wanted list • Alders theory, the masculinity theory, the women’s movement encouraged and allowed women  to be more like men; as women became more masculine because of the influence of the women’s  movement their offending increased – more violent • Most common circumstance of homicide for women was argument , for males the most  common was gang related • 2/5 homicides committed by women involved domestic violence – confrontational homicide is the most  commonly committed by women Davies, Chapt. 15 (10 questions) Pretrial Stages   ∙   Once suspect arrests, in hands of district attorney, decides what crimes to charge    ∙   Common for attorney to charge murder defendants (def) with several crimes when evidence supports such charges  ∙ In 2003, 61% of def’s charged w  murder in 75 largest urban counties were charged w at least 1 felony in addition to murder   Initial Appearance ∙ Within 48 hrs of arrest, accused must be brought before judge. If def cannot afford attorney during initial appearance one may be  assigned ∙ If accused arrested w/o warrant, a probable cause hearing must take place within 24 hours to guarantee there was probable  cause for arrest ∙ Pretrial Release o Less likely in homicide cases o Nearly ¾ of those eventually convicted, denied bail/had bail amounts of at least $100 000 ∙ Grand Jury (G.J) o Meet in secret and def has no right to attend/present evidence o If G.J believes there’s enough evidence to proceed with case, def is indicted, case is said to be “true bill”. Rare  if jury d oesn’t indict. o Georgia/Tennessee prosecutor may be req’d to file complaint against accused in preliminary hearing o Here, the judge determines whether there’s probable cause to con’t case ∙ Arraignment o Here def enters their plea. May plead: o Guilty ­ admits to acts accused of, sentence hearing scheduled o Nolo contendere (No contest) ­ accused admits criminal liability but not guilt o Not guilty ­ saying accused wants prosecution to make case against them 10 o and in some jurisdictions, not guilty by reason of insanity. e.g. Rivera killed 4 women,  admitted, but also claimed he was psychologically unbalanced. He wanted to be found guilty and  sentenced to death ∙ Plea bargaining o Agreement made between prosecuting attorney/def, approved by judge o Def agrees to plead guilty to lesser crime/fewer crimes in exchange for more lenient sentencing o Common for those accused of murder, nonnegligent manslaughter & other o 95% of all state felony conviction in 02 were result of guilty pleas, only 2/3 of those convicted of homicide were  convicted by guilty plea o Data from 75 leg US counties indicate there were fewer murder trials than assault/drug trials in 02 ∙ Pretrial Motions o Attorney may file pretrial motion in which make a request of judge ●  Defense usually asks to see what evidence will be used against def, so they know what they’re up against (evidence discovery)  ● Both sides may ask to have evidence buried or excluded (evidence suppression)   Jury Selection ∙ According to Sixth Amendment, US citizens accused of serious crime are guaranteed right to trial by an impartial jury. This  means jurors must be unbiased and selected from venire, a group of potential jurors that is rep’d of the community from which is  selected. ∙ Murder trials consist of 12 jurors and 2 alts ∙ Process for jury selection is voir dire “to speak the truth”   Scientific Jury Selection ∙ Jay Schulman and other social scientists began practice of scientific jury selection ∙ Schulman and others conducted survey/interview research to develop demographic profiles of those most likely and least likely to  side w prosecution ∙ Ability to predict juror decision based on demographic/personality characteristics increases only slightly with use of this   Opening Statements ∙ Prosecution/def have opportunity to make opening statement, outlining what will be presented. It is not required, but most utilize it   Presentation of Evidence ∙ Evidence may be divided in direct and circumstantial evidence   ∙    Direct ­ evidence proves a fact. Ex; testimony from witness who testifies witnessing a murder    ∙    Circumstantial ­ indirect evidence. Must deduce what happened from evidence, nothing directly links the offender to the   crime. ∙ 1993 Supreme Court made ruling in Daubert v. Merrill Dow that gave more power to judges for determining what would be  considered sci. evidence and if it would be admitted in a trial ∙ Frye decision, to be permitted in court scientific evidence must be based on accepted scientific techniques   Defense to Murder ∙ 3 general defense to the charge of murder are: alibi, justification and excuses ∙ Alibi  (“elsewhere”) o When murder defs use alibi, arguing they could not be guilty bc they were somewhere else when crime took  place 11 o Catalan, accused of murder even though he was at a Dodgers game. Vid evidence saved him ∙ Justification o Admit they killed, but argue it was necessary to prevent great harms to themselves or another o Consent ­ used when any harm done occurred after vic gave permission. Case of Dr. Kevorkian, who  helped end the lives of 130 ppl but was given consent because of diseases they had o Necessity ­ if def commits crime to prevent greater harm. Shipwreck survivors killings the third survivor so  they could eat him and survive o Self­Defense ­ in most US jurisdictions the law of self­defense states that an individual may use  reasonable force against another when individual reasonably believes other is threatening with  imminent/unlawful harm o Defense of Others ­ force used against others must be reasonable, the person one is defending must be  in imminent danger. If person is defending the indiv who started altercation they won’t be released from  responsibility o Defense of Home and Property ­ in most jurisdictions, you don’t have right to kill to protect your prop  unless in imminent danger. Though Florida laws state you can use deadly force against intruders in your  home (Stand Your Ground Law) ∙ Excuses o Used by defs who admit they committed a crime but argue they weren’t legally responsible at time o Age ­  defs under 7 aren’t believed to be capable of committing crime (do not have   mens rea   ­ necessary   understanding of crime to be guilty of it). Defs older than 7 but under 14 can employ age as defense o  Involuntary Intoxication   ­ if person is drugged against own will or tricked into taking substance that results   in intoxication. Might not be found guilty o Provocation ­ Defense has to prove to def, acting as any responsible person would act, lost emotional  control bc of provocation by vic o Insanity ­ refers to mental state of def at time of crime. Some say their mental state at time of crime was not  stable.  M’Naghten Rule  , person isn’t guilty of crime if at time she/he didn’t know what they were doing/it    was wrong.   Substantial capacity test  , combination of M’Naghten test and what is known as an   “irresistible impulse”   Closing Arguments ∙ Attorney summarize cases w/o presenting any new evidence. To either get the def off the hook or if it’s clear they’re guilty, to get  them a lesser sentence   Jury’s Decision ∙ May only speak to other jurors. May only use evidence from the trial .    Jury selects a foreperson to lead them .    If threat of interacting/being influenced by non­jury members is high, jury may be sequestered (isolated) .    A jury who does talk to someone else/does their own investigating will be removed from the case .    Jury must decide on a guilty or non­guilty verdict   Verdict ∙ In murder cases, jury must come to a unanimous decision .    If not unanimous, the jury is said to be “hung”. The judge then must rule a mistrial, and it is on the district attorney to decide if a  retrial is necessary   12 Sentencing ∙ In death penalty cases, jury who found def guilty is given responses for recommending a sentence to judge   ∙   In non­capital cases, sentencing decision is response of judge  ∙ 1999 study shows 95% of defs convicted of murder/nonneg manslaughter in state/federal court were sentenced to incarceration,  5% to probation ∙ Avg incarceration was 20 years in 1996 ∙ Data for 2003 showed median sentence of 40yrs with almost 40% of all those convicted of murder being sentenced to life   Death Penalty Cases ∙ 1972 Furman v Georgia, Supreme Court ruled that administration of the death penalty in Georgia was cruel/unusual  punishment because it was being admin’d arbitrarily ∙ Opinion polls show many Americans support death penalty. ∙ Researchers found that in Ohio, the odds of a death sentence were over 1.75 times greater in cases in which a white person was  killed as compared to cases with non­white victim. Similarly those who killed women were most susceptible to the death sentence  than those who killed men. ∙ Those who killed white women were more likely sentenced to death than those who killed white men or blacks of either sex ∙ Supreme Court ruled that execution of mentally retarded offenders was a violation of 8th Amendment’s prohibition against  cruel/unusual punishment. Same with those under 18 Davies, Chapt. 16  (5 questions)     The Impact of Homicide  o Homicide Survivors § Family members suffer immensely when their loved ones are taken away by murder o Box 16.1- Murder Site Cleanup § $400-$10,000 o Survivors and the Criminal Justice System  §    Crimes are viewed as crimes against the state instead from crimes against individual  victims- victims role is peripheral § If law enforcement discovers a suspect, co-victims are rarely if ever included in any decisions about prosecuting the accused o Victims’Rights Movement  §    During the 1970s, several social movements converged into what is now referred to as  the US Victims’Rights Movement § Natural Organization for VictimAssistance was founded in 1975 § Victim impact statement in 1976 § Robert and Charlotte Hullinger founded Parents of Murdered Children (POMC) in 1978 § 1982 President Reagan appointed the Task Force on Victims of Crime- made 68 recommendations  §    1984 Victims of CrimeAct (VOCA)- provides funding for victim assistance programs  and state victim compensation o VictimAssistance Programs 13 § Carol Vittert- Aid for Victims of Crime provides services to victims in St. Louis area  §    Victim assistance programs instituted to provide a better experience for crime victims  and witnesses in the criminal justice system o Box 16.2- Rights of Federal Crime Victims § Federal crime victims have eight rights o Box 16.3- Laura’s Law   Make parole hearings public   o Victim Compensation  §    Victim compensation funds provide financial reimbursement to victim for losses they  incurred during a crime § Proposed in 1950s by English penal reformer Margery Fry § New Zealand and England in 1963 § United States began in NY and California in 1965 § Nearly 200,000 victims helped each year in United States- $450 million § Often limited to $25,000 o Victim Impact Statements   Way for victims to indicate the impact the crime has had on them     Emotional trauma and financial suffering   o Restorative Justice  §    Restorative justice has a long history that has been linked to NativeAmerican and  aboriginal New Zealander customs.Anglo-Saxon tribal law, and the Bible  §    Idea of retributive justice is to repair the wrong done to the victim and the community  by bringing the offender, victim, and community members together § Thomas Ann Hines 21 year old son killed in 1985 by 17 year old Charles White. Hines was left with a void in her life she could not reconcile, until she met White. Talking gave them both closure and acceptance o Box 16.4- May a Killer Receive Life Insurance Benefits from Victim §Aperson cannot receive insurance benefits or inheritance if their wrongdoing led to the death that would benefit them o The Cost of Homicide   InAustralia in 2001- $930 million for 589 homicides    §    Measured by medical costs (non-mental health related), lost output (loss of paid and  unpaid labour), intangible costs (value of pain, suffering and lost quality of life) - does not include criminal justice costs (investigation, trial, incarceration costs)   In 2001, USAhad 13,752 homicides - $22 billion   § AIC and Rand study o The Murderer’s Family 14  §    Emotional stress, stigmatization, insensitive media, loss of income, loss of loved one,  guilt § Hard to find support; often neglected/forgotten   § Gerry Nail founded Beyond the Bars o Criminal Justice Personnel and Reporters  §    Law enforcement is a particularly stressful job - stress more pronounced for homicide  investigators than other law enforcement officers § Fatigue, long hours, and the inability to share the horrors they witness    §   Those involved often grow callous, less trustful and suffer from nightmares  o Serving as a Juror in a Murder Trial § Many jurors suffer due to trials (anxiety, headaches, PTSD, mentally haunted) § Reinaldo Rivera trial - jury struggled with details and decision § Judge James Williams told jurors before the Robert Pickton murder trial “I think this trial might expose the juror to something that might be as bad as a horror movie, and you don’t have the option of turning off the TV” o Fascination with Homicide § Susan Smith - abducted her two young boys Alex and Michael in October 1994 and drowned them in John D. Long Lake § Rocky Mountain Media Watch organization found that crime stories, particularly homicide, dominated half the newscasts they monitored in 35 states in the 1990s § Elaine and Gordon Rondeau lost their daughter Renee to murder in 1994, contend that the continual portrayal of murder has made murder seem a normal part of society today- created group ActionAmericans: Murder Must End Now! o Murderabilia § In 1999,Andrew Kahan started bringing attention to an issue he found troubling: murderabilia, serial killer memorabilia, are items sold by collectors, dealers, or the killers themselves § Websites such as Serial Killer Central and MurderAuction o Son of Sam Laws (“Fruits of the crime”) § In 1977, the Son of Sam Law was enacted by the NY State Legislature to keep convicted murderers such as David Berkowitz (the Son of Sam) from making any money from the sale of stories about the crimes they committed § Found to be too broad - applied to accused who were found not guilty as well. Rewritten o Box 16.7- The Murder Wall § Traveling memorial to those lost to murder Chapter 17 (7 Questions) 15 Stopping Murder ∙ Crime control efforts aimed at reducing crime are in favour of preventing specific types of murder ∙ At­risk populations, juvenile gangs, individuals in battering relationships… Deterrence ∙ Punishment to prevent would­be offenders from committing crimes ∙ Certainty of punishment ∙   Deterrence through instituting strong penalties for those who commit homicide   ∙   Whether they work – point of debate   ∙ If an offender is incarcerated, they would be less likely to consider further offending due to the unpleasant penalty ∙ Various penalties may fulfill the role of general or specific deterrence used as punishment as a threat to deter people from offending  Incapacitation ∙   Offenders are literally prevented from continuing to kil l o But – inmates do occasionally commit murder while incapacitated o Solitary confinement and death sentences for this reason ∙ Marvell and Moody – 10% increase in the prison population was associated with nearly 13% fewer homicides from 1930 to  1994 ∙ Could be that incapacitation works and prisons rehabilitate or it could be that those released are nonviolent offenders ∙   Incarcerating individuals simply for preventing them from committing crimes is troubling in a demographic society – no    sound way to predict who will commit murder ∙ Berk – program to generate scores for probationers o Officers could watch those with higher scores more closely ∙ Problems of false positives and false negatives o False negative – probation officers may be upset that they could have prevented a death committed by a low­ scoring criminal o False positive – less troubling, but costly in focusing resources and energy in preventing something that would have  never happened Youth Gang Reduction through Lever­Pulling Strategies ∙ Boston – 1% of the city’s youth population was responsible for at least 60% of the homicides involving young people as  victims and offenders ∙ Tended to be gang members with previous arrests ∙   Project Ceasefire – aims to stop violent crime by being extremely tough on crime   ∙ Prosecute and punish anyone who uses a gun in the commission of a crime, long time in prison ∙   Zero tolerance – convicted offenders and gang members believed to be at risk for homicide victimization or offending were    encouraged to take advantage of social programs to improve their lives ∙   Impressive results – violent gang offending and youth violence decreased dramatically after the implementation of the    program 16 Striking Out ∙ “Three strikes and you’re out” policy to incapacitate and deter offenders from making a career out of crime ∙ Government officials believed individuals would either refrain from further offences to avoid long­term incarceration or those  who “struck out” would be incarcerated and thus incapacitated from committing further crimes ∙   Studies have failed to demonstrate their success   ∙ Found that cities and states with strike laws saw increases in homicide as high as 29% than those without ∙ Kovandzic – positive association between strike laws and homicide rates o (1) Criminals do not believe they will be caught and thus deterrence does not work o (2) Perpetrators may be under the influence of drugs or alcohol and thus not thinking about the consequences of  their actions when they kill o (3) Strike laws made it more likely for offenders to kill witnesses so that perpetrators are not identified and arrested Capital Punishment as a Deterrent ∙ Death penalty states do not have lower homicide rates than non­death penalty states ∙ Initial research – deterrent effect on the numbers of murders ∙ Recent research – fails to deter murder. Likely because murder is often a crime of passion where offenders aren’t thinking  long­term Gun Control in the US ∙ One of the most controversial solutions ∙ Proponents – gun availability increases serious violence and murder ∙ Opponents – guns do not cause violence and ownership by law­abiding citizens may even deter violence ∙ No consensus in the field of criminology ∙ Duggan – many of the studies about guns and crime are flawed because there is not a reliable measure of gun ownership  in a particular geographic area o There was a significant positive relationship between gun ownership and homicide o Homicide rates did not increase gun ownership, but instead increasing gun ownership preceded increases in gun  homicide rates o Non­gun homicide was not related to gun ownership ∙ Stolzenberg and D’Alessio – legal gun ownership did not affect violent crimes either positively or negatively o Homicide could be prevented by preventing gun theft ∙ Concealed handgun laws may reduce violent crimes involving murder – mixed results .    Gun buyback ­ government buys firearms from members of the public to reduce firearms on the streets. Australia: may have  reduced firearm suicide, but had no observable effect on firearm homicide Box 17.2 ­ Are Gun Owners More Likely to Be Murdered? .   Individuals who live in households in which at least one person owns a gun are 2.7 times more likely to be victims than  individuals in non­gun­owning houses .   This may be because houses that own a gun are also maybe more likely to involve deviant behaviour such as drug  consumption and gang affiliation Economy 17 ∙ US homicide rates fell in the 1990s – explanations for this decrease may help point towards structural or sociological factors  to prevent or stop homicide ∙ Link between increases in unemployment and increases in crime ∙ If unemployment is related to homicide, policies for decreasing homicide should consider increasing the employability of  potential offenders (education and vocational training) .    Lower economic stability may also contribute to lower government spending on homicide prevention and other crime control  measures Death Reviews ∙ Attempt to figure out what may have led to a death and what may have prevented it ∙ Discovery of patterns contributing to murders ∙ Help social services and criminal justice agencies learn more about what they may do to prevent intimate partner homicide  and child abuse homicide Improving Medical Responses and Technological Advances ∙ Suggests that homicide may be reduced by improving emergency medical responses ∙ Availability of cell phones and cell phone service ∙ Improvements in medical care ∙ Increase emergency response times, improve trauma centers, increase number of medical facilities ∙ May prevent aggravated assaults from turning into murders ∙ Technological advances, such as increases in the number of surveillance cameras may reduce crime and help police to  better solve crime Box 17.3 ­ Access to Medical Transportation, Race, and Homicide .   Connection between time of death and race .   Access to medical care and emergency transportation differed by race such that African American assault victims were  more likely to die than white victims Early Intervention ∙ Focus on teaching elementary or middle­school children how to solve conflicts without resorting to violence ∙ Major difficulty – determining whether they reduce homicide/violence over the long term ∙ PeaceBuilders teaches students and teachers prosocial behaviours and social skills to help students deal with conflict ∙ Children in schools with PeaceBuilders were less aggressive and more prosocial than children not involved in the program ∙ Effective most on first­ and second­graders Domestic Violence Intervention ∙ More than law enforcement is required to end domestic violence; a community must not tolerate any domestic violence if it  is to be prevented ∙ Difficult to say if intervention helps with this o (1) Domestic homicides are lower when there are more options for battered women 18 o (2) Individual testimonials by women who have survived battering relationships with the help of shelters indicate  that they believe intervention saved their lives Reducing Confrontational Violence ∙ Brookman & Maguire – reduce violence in establishments where alcohol is served ∙ Physical designs of pubs and clubs to make them seem more spacious ∙ Training staff so they are more likely to reduce potential violence ∙ Pubs and clubs with high violence rates are threatened with liquor licence withdrawal  Juristat 2008 (‘Homicide in Canada’ by Sara Beattie)  (3 questions)    Highlights: ­ 611 homicides in 2008 (17 more than previous year – 2% increase) ­ Homicide rate peaked in the 70s then decreased till 1999 where it has been steady since ­ Increase in 2008 was due to gang­related incidents in B.C. and Alberta o Gang­related incidents account for ¼ homicides annually ­ Victims equally likely to be shot or stabbed (1/3 of incidents) ­ Firearms are used more commonly (24% increase since 2002) ­ Most homicide victims know their killer (83% of cases) ­ Spousal homicide rates are decreasing ­ Number of youth accused of homicide has dropped from a peak in 2006 Article: ­ Less than 1% of all violent crimes are homicide ­ Canadians 6x more likely to commit suicide, 4x more likely to be killed in car accident ­ Homicide is most serious criminal offence ­ Homicide rates in Canada are 1/3 of that of the US ­ Homicide rates from highest to lowest: 1. Turkey 2. US 3. New Zealand 4. Germany 5. Switzerland 6. Sweden 7. Finland 8. Scotland 9. Canada 19 ­ Homicide rates are highest in the West and in Territories ­ Citizens living in large urban areas are at slightly less risk than those living in smaller urban or rural areas ­   Victims equally likely to be shot or stabbed ­   Firearms use declined from 70’s to 2002. Increasing since ­   Over that span, handguns have been increasing, rifles and shotguns decreasing ­   2008 was lowest for female homicides ever (24%) Collins et al  (2 questions)      ViCLAS: violent crime linkage analysis system – allows trained specialists to link crimes, represents the  application of the latest technology in crime linkage analysis to assist in criminal investigation ­ Has been adopted by Australia, The Netherlands, Belgium and Austria – in the US, Indiana and Tennessee  use the system Automated Case Linkage System ­ Term used to describe a computerized data base collection of information about solved or unsolved crimes ­ 1985 – US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) introduced VICAP (Violent Crime Apprehension program) ­ mid 1980s – Canada introduced MCF (Major Crime File) o Text­based search database o Questionnaires would be completed, sent to RCMP specialists who inputted the data o By 1990, there were over 800 cases but no linkages o Weakness: query results were either too broad or too narrow, incumbent on the search  criteria and there was no methodology for capturing behaviourally based information  (dependent on the investigators interpretation of behaviour) o Failed ­ Lead to creation of ViCLAS McKay ­ Returned from training at the FBI Behavioural Science Unit ­ Formed violent crime analysis branch at RCMP headquarters ViCLAS ­ Used best features from each of the current automated case linkage systems ­ Long form: 39 page data collection form with 263 questions o Intended to capture all solved/unsolved homicides and sexual assaults of a predatory  nature, apparently random, motiveless or that are known or suspected of being part a  series ­ Short form: 8 pages of 83 questions o Solved/unsolved sexual assaults or attempts of predatory nature where little detail is known o If connection appears, they fill out a long form after 20 ViCLAS form uses closed­ended questions and multiple choice (check the box)  ● represents the application of the latest technology in crime linkage analysis to assist in criminal  investigation  Developments ­despite international accolades and recognition, initially slow to take off across Canada, especially in  Ontario. Solution: education and mandatory use of the system ­a big fear is that the long or short forms may be leaked and used to tell offenders what investigators are  looking for, and what to avoid in future crime Pridemore (10 questions) ­ Violence is a public health threat o Health officials work with sociologists and criminologists o Interdisciplinary work towards health approaches that reduce violence ­ Interpersonal violence and war related deaths are the largest injury category in the world ­ Victims of violence tend to be younger than those dying of internal causes o Disproportionately influences a population's life expectancy ­ High income countries with established market economies have lower rates of homicide mortality rates o Except the United States ­ Violence that is experienced indirectly or directly in childhood leads to delinquency, violence as an adult, mental health problems, and other health problems ­ Groups with high levels of violence: o Higher costs for public and private responses to violence (hospitals, doctors, prisons, police) o Higher levels of drug and alcohol use o Social institutions (family, school, economy) are constantly under attack o Health problems for those affected by violence ­ Homicide rates exhibit temporal, demographic, and spatial patterns o Community, situational, social structural characteristics o Rates were highest in nations of sub-SaharaAfrica, LatinAmerica, the former Soviet Union o Highest rate for males 15-29 o Highest for females 0-4 - likely the result of relative devaluing of the lives of girls and women in certain cultures as well as the specific cultural and political ramifications of the one-child policy in China. ­ Poverty is arguably the most common factor leading to violence ­ Black males were responsible for almost the entire rise from the mid 1980s to 1990s 21 o Guns were used in more than three fourths of those murders o Reducing gang involvement, the crack trade, and gun availability become a common practice ­ Mercy and Hummond: classification of violence prevention programs for adolescents based on risk factors levels: o Personal: individual factors o Parochial: interpersonal relationships and social settings oPublic: social structures and institutions ­ Gorden: typology of preventative measures based on groups at which the interventions are aimed: o Universal: laws and campaigns targeting total population o Selective: aimed at those with above average risk o Indicated: aimed at those who are severely at risk or are already victims or offenders ­ Women who employ self protective behaviours were less at risk of encountering a violent situation than those who did not use protective measures ­ There are many school and organization based programs for youth that are meant to prevent or treat youth with poor self control or anger The burden of Violence  • Interpersonal violence alone is third leading cause of death in the injury category  • Males suffer this fate much more than females.  • It is the leading cause of total years of potential life lost.  • Intentional violent injuries contribute to overall mortality worldwide  • violent death is one of the main reasons little reduction in overall mortality rate in the past 20 to 30 years.   There is evidence that direct and indirect exposure to violence in childhood is a risk factor not only for delinquency but also on adult mental health and other health  problems • High rates of violence create fear, uncertainty and stress among community members, negatively influencing individuals health • Community vitality is also at risk, levels of social cohesion are affected • Areas with high levels of violence are constantly impacting family, community, education and the economy • Families of the victim and the convicted also suffer psychological anguish and economic burdens associated with death or incarceration of loved one •Enormous costs associated with the private and public response to violence ( Drs, hospitals, prisons, police) •annual cost of violence in United States is $100 billion   Researchers and public health officials must make the same shift with homicide and other violence that was made with “ accidents” and “disease” many years ago.   Homicide rates are not random. The exhibit demographic, temporal, and spatial patterns and are conditioned not only by individuals but also community, situational and  social structural characteristics. Homicide is an avoidable cause of death that can be mitigated with concerted policies and prevention techniques. Adding a  public health perspective to this work would be beneficial in translating what we know about the causes of violence into  effective practices for its reduction.       • Age and gender specific homicide were highest for men age 15­29 years. • Females children aged 0­4 years had the highest homicide mortality rate • High rates of infanticide and devaluing the lives of girls and women in certain cultures as well as the “one child” policy in china • Blacks in the United States have exhibited for generations high levels of excess mortality due to homicide. 22 • Although homicide decline in the US in the 1990’s it is still several times that in established market economy’s • High rate has a lot to do with high homicide rates amongst blacks • Although homicide was not among the top 15 causes of death for Whites, it was number 6 among blacks and it was the number one killer of blacks between 15 and 24  yrs   Integrating Sociological and Public Health perspectives • each offers unique contributions to our understanding of the causes of violence, and potential ways to reduce harm. Until recently  approaches have been mostly separate with each rarely citing the others literature. The following is meant to spur debate over the  integration of these perspectives and suggest a shift from a multi to interdisciplinary approach to the study of violence and  prevention.   Sociological Criminology • Main goal of sociological criminology is to develop casual theories from past observations and evaluate their validity • most sociologists are not trained in designing and implementing interventions, many are methodologically equipped to evaluate the efficacy of public health  interventions and other policy implementations • theory construction, together with policy and intervention analysis are main roles for sociologically oriented criminologists in an integrated approach toward prevention  of violence. • Durkheim (1893/1933) suggests social conditions and social change create higher rates of crime. •Shaw and McKay led criminologists to study the variation of crime rates among different areas, looking at the social structure of places instead of individual people • Most criminologists who study violence examine group level and community characteristics to gain understanding and patterns of homicide • Interpersonal interactions are often conditioned by location and social setting in which they occur • These social characteristics make the difference between a nonviolent and violent resolution   • Much of the knowledge about homicide developed by criminologists mirrors that developed by public health researchers and epidemiologists about disease. • Both are beginning to fully recognize multiple levels of causation • both look to the same structural covariates of health outcomes such as deprivation and social capital. • criminologists stress that what happens earlier in one’s life might increase the risk of offending or victimization late in life • Genetic or other factors may act as protective mechanism • relationship between aggregate levels of poverty and homicide rates is probably the most consistent finding in the literature on social structure and homicide all  individuals with similar levels of poverty do not face the same risk of homicide mortality. Despite their own poverty those living in lower middle class or middle  class areas have a much lower risk of offending or victimization than those living in areas of concentrated poverty. (the former tends more often to be whites) • Where one lives and thus his or her risk of violent injury or death is often socially determined to a large degree and is a clear example that social structure does  matter.   Public Health • although discussions of violence have appeared in health literature for decades it has been a peripheral topic until recently • result of the view of violence and homicide only as crime, violence related morbidity are no less a threat to physical and mental health and sources of many other  illness and death • Public health perspective focus on violence has lent a new approach because main public health goal is harm reduction not just scientific knowledge • Public health focuses on individual risk and protective factors •  A shift in public health toward the role of the social environment in the incidence and the prevalence of morbidity and mortality including violence.   Mercy and Hammond (1998) list main contributions of public health to the study of violence 1.    Eemphasis on and commitment to violence prevention 2.     Prevention strategies that are based on sound scientific evidence 3.     Acting in an interdisciplinary manner to integrate information from several fields and use it create efficient, cost effective and complementary responses 4.     Provide effective health services that mitigate physical & psychological injuries of victims of violence 5.     A commitment to recognizing the important role of communities in responding to violence.     To carry out the first major task of public health is to define the problem and create a surveillance system for its accurate measurement. • Data is then used to track patterns and discover risk and protective factors for particular health outcome • identify groups most at risk of proximate risk factors • intervention strategies can be designed to reduce and prevent harm 23   Community and governmental strategies have helped in the past reducing gang involvement and gun availability in urban areas across the country; those strategies  deemed successful were often copied in other communities. • Research makes clear that the causes and effects of violence occur at several levels, intervention strategies must be clear as possible in defining target.   These levels include 1.     Personal (individual factors) 2.     The parochial (interpersonal relationships and proximate social settings) 3.     The public (social structure institutions or macrosystems)   Mercy and Hammond also borrowed from the work of Gorden (1983) for their typology of preventative measures which are based on the groups at which the  interventions are aimed 1.     Universal (measures such as laws or campaigns directed at everyone in a population) 2.     Selective (measures aimed at those with above average risk) 3.     Indicated (measures for those at especially high risk)   From the matrix interventions, can target individuals, families, schools, communities even nations. •Women employing self­protective behavior were less at risk of violent injury than those who did not use such measures   Wilsons meta­analysis reveals that school violence prevention and treatment programs that focus on self control and anger management are able to substantially  reduce aggressive disruptive behavior   School based interventions that also incorporated community service were more successful than school based programs alone in reducing the risk of violent behavior  among at risk adolescents Nationwide anti­alcohol campaign in Russia was associated with a sharp reduction in homicide rates. • Reduction of gang violence via aggressive enforcement of curfew and truancy ordinances and a 25% reduction in homicides committed with a firearm as a result of  restrictive handgun licenses in Washington   Conclusion • World Health Organization recently released World Health Report on Violence and Health and has undertaken a global campaign on violence prevention. • Committee on Emerging Health Threats of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population stated that a primary aim of the committee is to promote  extensive scientific exchange in understanding the causal relationships that drive existing health threats • Includes special focus on the socio­economic inequalities in mortality and health on the global burden of injuries and violence. • goals like this demand collaboration between scientists from many disciplines • “Will require new ways of working, drawing on diverse methods and the skills of many different disciplines” • Violence is a serious health threat in many populations that has many negative physical emotional and social and economic consequences. • health burden of homicide in USA is several times than that in other developed market economies. • Homicide is an external cause of death that exhibits consistent demographic, temporal and spatial patterns. • It is a preventable form of mortality, and the burden of violence can therefore be minimized via public health interventions. • Public health has a history of successfully applying scientific knowledge to implement effective intervention strategies.. changing institutional and individual • Sociological criminologists can reveal patterns of homicide and discover how they co­vary with group level processes and social structural conditions, thereby better  understanding its causal structure. In sum despite difficulties in doing so and integration of sociological criminological and public health perspectives should be  synergistic allowing us to improve our understanding of and response to the heavy burden of homicide and other types of  violence.  Pozzulo et al (13 questions)    Nature and Extent of Homicidal Violence 24 ∙ Canadian criminal law recognizes four different types of homicide: o First­degree murder § Max. life in prison § Murder thats planned and deliberate, the murder of a law                                                                         enforcement officer or correctional staff member, or a murder occurring during the commission of  another violent offence o Second­degree murder § Max. life in prison § All murder that is not first­degree o Manslaughter § Max. life in prison (min., 5 years) § Unintentional murder that occurs during the “heat of passion” or because of criminal negligence o Infanticide § Max. 5 years in prison § Killing of a newborn (less than 1 year) child by a mother ∙ Canada is seeing a steady rise in gang­related homicides ∙ Gun­related homicides have also been on the rise ∙ The rate of female homicide victims is decreasing ∙ More likely to occur in Western provinces and Northern Territories   Bimodal Classification of Homicide ∙ Reactive aggression: violence that is impulsive, unplanned, immediate, driven by negative emotions, and occurring in  response to some perceived provocation o Also known as affective violence o Occurs more often among relatives ∙ Instrumental aggression: violence that is premeditated, calculated behaviour, motivated by some goal o Also known as predatory aggression o Occurs more often among strangers   Filicide: When Parents Kill ∙ Filicide: the killing of children by their biological parents or step­parents; includes neonaticide (killing a baby within 24 hours of  birth) and infanticide (killing a baby within the first year of life) ∙ Mothers who kill o There are 3 broad types of maternal filicides § Neonaticide ∙ Typically young, unmarried women ­ Within the first 24 hours   ­ these people are not suicidal, and who have concealed their pregnancies, fearing rejection  and disapproval from their families. ● Those committed by battering mothers ∙ Social and family stress § Those committed by mothers with mental illnesses ∙ Older and married 25 ∙ Likely to have killed older children, to have multiple victims, and to be diagnosed with a  psychosis or depression ∙ Most likely to attempt suicide after murder o Altruistic filicide: mothers who kill out of love Infanticide and Mental Illness ∙ Three types of mental illness have been identified during the postpartum period: o Postpartum blues  § Most common § Includes crying, irritability, and anxiety, beginning within a few days of childbirth and lasting from a few  hours to days but rarely continuing past day 12 o Postpartum depression § First few weeks or months after birth and usually lasts for several months § Depressed mood, loss of appetite, concentration and sleep problems, and suicidal thoughts o Postpartum psychosis § Hearing voices, seeing things, and feeling an irrational guilt that they have somehow done something  wrong Fathers Who Kill ∙ Described as fatal child abuse ∙ Familicide occurs when a spouse and children are killed o Despondent nonhostile killer is depressed and worried about an impending disaster for himself or his  family § Kills his family then commits suicide o Hostile accusatory killer expresses hostility toward his wife, often related to alleged infidelities or her  intentions to terminate the relationship Youth Who Kill ∙ Juvenile homicide rate remains relatively stable ∙ Psychotic: youth who had symptoms of severe mental illness at the time of the murder ∙ Conflict: youth who were engaged in an argument or conflict with the victim when the killing occurred ∙ Crime: youth who killed during commission of another crime   Spousal Killers ∙ Femicide: the killing of women ∙ Uxoricide: denoting the killing of a wife by her husband ∙ Mariticide: the term denoting the killing of a husband by his wife .    A woman in Canada is ~9 times more likely to be killed by her partner than a stranger .    Following factors increased risk of homicide by spouse: offender access to gun, previous threats with a weapon, estrangement,  and victim having left for another partner   Serial Murderers: The Ultimate Predator ∙ Serial murder: the killing of a minimum of three people over time. The time interval between the murders varies and has  been called a cooling­off period. Subsequent murders occur at different times, have no apparent connection to the initial  murder, and are usually committed in different locations Characteristics of Serial Murderers ∙ Male 26 ∙ Operate on their own ∙ Caucasian ∙ Victims of serial murderers are usually young females who are not related to the murderer Female Serial Murder ∙ Black widows: those who kill husbands or family members for financial gain ∙ Angels of Death: nurses who kill their patients ∙ More likely to have no prior criminal record, have an accomplice, use poison, kill for money, and  kill a family member or someone they know Typologies of Serial Murderers ∙ Visionary serial murderer o A murderer who kills in response to voices or visions telling him or her to kill ∙ Mission­oriented serial murderer o A murderer who targets individuals from a group that he or she considers to be undesirable ∙ Hedonistic o A murderer who is motivated by self­gratification. This type of killer is divided into  three subgroups: § Lust ∙ A murderer who is motivated by sexual gratification § Thrill ∙ A murderer who is motivated by the excitement associated with the act of killing § Comfort ∙ A murder who is motivated by material or financial gain ∙ Power/Control o A murderer who is motivated not by sexual gratification but by wanting to have absolute dominance over the  victim How Many Serial Murderers Are There? ∙ An increase in the number of serial murderers over time   Mass Murderers ∙ Mass Murderer: The killing of three or more victims at a single location during one event with no cooling­off period ∙ Mass murderers are often depressed, angry, frustrated individuals who believe they have not  succeeded in life ∙ They are often described as socially isolated and lacking in interpersonal skills .     Often display warning signs that go unnoticed/unaddressed    Theories of Homicidal Aggression ∙ Trauma­control model of serial murder: the model suggesting that a multitude of factors are  involved in predicting who may be predisposed to commit serial murder ∙ According to social learning theorists, aggressive behaviour is learned the same way non­ aggressive behaviour is, through a process of reinforcement 27 ∙ The focus in evolutionary theories is on how crime can be thought of as adaptive behaviour,  developed as a means for people to survive in their ancestral environment ∙ From an evolutionary perspective, homicide emerged as one approach to best competitors who  were competing for limited resources, and modern humans have simply inherited this strategy  from their successful ancestors ∙ The General Aggression Model (GAM) o One of the more recent theories of aggression o It integrates a number of domain­specific theories to explain the emergence of all  types of aggression o The first component is referred to as inputs, which refer to biological, environmental, psychological, and  social factors that influence aggression in a specific social encounter § Placed into 2 categories ∙ Person factors: traits, attitudes, genetic predispositions ∙ Situation factors: incentives, provocation, frustration § Inputs influence behaviour via the internal states that they create within an  individual o These states, the second components, are referred to as route. The inputs specifically influence three routes  that in turn influence each other. They are: ● Cognition, e.g. hostile thoughts ● Affect (emotions), e.g. anger ● Arousal o These states directly affect the third component, outcomes. The outcomes can manifest in two ways: ● Thoughtful Action ­ controlled and thoughtful in nature ● Impulsive Action ­ relatively automatic and impulsive o One’s actions will directly impact the social encounter which then influences our inputs in the next social  encounter, starting the cycle over   Treatment of Homicidal Offenders ∙ Many treatment programs are designed to target some or all of the following factors: anger (and  emotions) management, self­regulation (self control), problem solving, interpersonal skills, and  social attitudes .    Tre   Fox et al   (8 questions)  Theories and dates Key concepts Policy implications Supernatural Demonic possession, evil spirits,  Torture and execution drive out evil Through the late 1600s witchcraft and the devil cause crime Chaos, cruelty and anarchy characterize  punishments for crime Classical Violent behavior is a result of choiceDeterrence though certain, swift and  Mid 1700s to late 1800s and free will, reasoning, decision  proportional punishment making, and assessment of pain  Utilitarian based notion of justice versus gain Biological Criminals have a physical or genetic  Eugenics, sterilization,  feeblemindedness,  28 Late 1800s to 1960s inferiority the predisposes them to  profiling, psychosurgery criminal behaviors Includes atavism, criminal  anthropology, genetics, body types  and XYY chromosome Psychoanalytic Unconscious motives and repression  Psychoanalysis to relieve overactive id,  1920s to present drive criminal behavior neurosis, and psychosis Deviant behavior is linked to  inadequate development of  personality components in early  childhood as a result of abuse,  neglect, extreme permissiveness, or  unconditional love Psychological and  Aggression is a response to frustration Counseling, drug therapy, and behavior  psychiatric Aggression is a result of imitation,  modification to treat violence as an  Early 1900s to present modeling and rewards towards  individual level phenomenon violence Violence is linked to mental illness,  personality disorders, and low IQ Rational choice
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