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SOC 3310
Norman Dubeski

Instructors Typology Contemporary theory-Theories of the 20 century since classical theory thus depend on definition of classical theory. This is the discipline but cannot stand independently of classical. Classical theory-Various dead theorists who had conviction, ambition and took a stand on objectivity and values. This is dead because knowledge is too complex to try and grasp the big picture. Grand Theory-Someone who tries to put the big picture together. Contemporary theory is not grand theory but is more specialized. Positivism/Natural Sciences-Social reality is objective and thus results are verifiable. Predicting behaviour is a primary goal, values are unproblematic. Public often assumes that this is what sociology is or should be. A sociologist is an impersonal observer. Interpretive/Interaction-Facts and values do not mesh. People create meaning through interpreting interaction, recognizes people have different values. Sociologists should connect and have mutual understanding, should be sympathetic and can engage in participant observation. Critical/Ideological-Values and facts are conjoined, opposite to positivism. Objectivity is impossible and rejected. -Social reality is dominated by conflict over power and truth where often oppressed masses are forced to believe the elites to maintain the status quo and liberation is possible only when the oppressed overthrow the elites. Do not think the oppressed can speak for themselves so they are the oppressed champions for change. People only see real truth when they realize their oppression. Includes all revolutionary groups good or bad. E.g. hitler. -Doesnt wish to prove ideas but to convert believers. Assumes that things are always bad for society e.g. inequality. Structural/Holistic-Doesnt reject objectivity but suggests society has its own truths and is a reality of itself (Sui generis). Society is like an organism where the whole thing functions from parts which are mutually connected but the parts are explained by the whole not the other way around. The values of society differ from the individuals who make it up. Assumes societies boundaries are unproblematic. Assumes collective conscious. -Sociologists should be patient and be a non-invasive healer to the social body which needs stabilization, equilibrium, growth and evolution. Textbook typology Functionalism-Macro level analysis. Human beings are predictable. Values are motivation for social action. Deductive scientific approach Conflict-Macro level analysis. Human beings are predictable. Personal best interest is motivation for social action. Deductive scientific approach. Symbolic Interactionism-Micro level analysis. Human beings are creative and not predictable. Values are motivation for social action. Inductive scientific approach. Phenomenology-Micro level approach. Human beings are creative and not predictable. Values are motivation for social action. Rational Choice-Micro level approach. Human beings are predictable. Personal best interest is motivation for social action. Deductive scientific approach. C. Wright Mills -Wrote on class differences, says that we can bridge the level between macro and micro levels by growing our sociological imagination. Public receives information through mass media. Regrets the decline in petite bourgeoisie (aka farmers) because they were key to Americas identity. -Believed white collar workers of higher status would feel more alienation than those of blue collar workers. Sociological Craftsmanship-Sociologists must grow their ability to understand society. Were linked to what we study, we shouldnt go throw the motions to please superiors. Should like personal with social and historical. -Keep a journal of our thoughts, ideas, examples, changes in thought. We need to strengthen our sociological imagination. Do not write jargon. Create our own classification systems. Put it in a comparative historical perspective, write, identify themes of investigation. -Do not overspecialize, keep your perception of man fluid and dynamic, put everything in historical context and do not accept things as they are. Writing-Keep it simple, avoid jargon, making it impersonal doesnt make it better, you will suffer criticism. Find your own voice. Lewis Coser -Said to bridge structural functionalism and conflict theories with Simmels ideas. Examined conflict as a functional process that contributed to a social solidarity. -Bringing people together and preventing greater conflicts like war. Conflict is a double edged sword for unity. -Focuses on peoples emotions and close proximity to one another and how that facilitates or diffuses conflict. Group cohesion is a possible result of conflict and can lead to respect and knowledge. External Conflict-Group contains cohesion from a mutual enemy e.g. cult leaders promote fear of evil outsiders which gains unity through social isolation. The enemy doesnt have to exist. Easier to unite people against something than for it. Internal Conflict-Can unify a group. Little conflict tests and then confirms/updates norms. Without conflict there could be total control by a dictator. The bigger the group the more complex the chains of interaction and thus the more conflicts there will be. There are many simultaneous conflicts and build our identity on them. Structural Functionalism -Independent part of society are interrelated and after a disturbance work towards equilibrium (the normal state). Enduring institutions fulfil functions, those that dont fulfill functions are eliminated from society. -Society is really flexible and not really defined properly. Needs of society come before the needs of the individual. -A. Comte explained society by its institutions (family is smallest institution). -A. Quetelet found stable rates of crime and called them social facts. -H. Spencer said modern society structures evolve to increasingly specialized functions. -V. Pareto said society has a dynamic equilibrium (Changing homeostasis). Emile Durkheim-Division of labour changes nature of social solidarity. Social facts are based on the whole society not on free will and have an existence independence of individual choice.-Morality is explained by social solidarity, society gives us what we have in common. Anomie-Reduced social solidarity leaves norms unenforced, causes personal problems in different ways e.g. suicide, divorce etc. Anomic Suicide-lack of moral regulation, Egoistic suicide-lack of belonging, Fatalistic suicide-too much regulation, Altruistic suicide-too much belonging. Primitive society-Mechanical solidarity, everyone does similar work, collective conscious, punishment punitive. Modern Society-Organic solidarity, interdependence, less collective conscious, different points of view, punishment restitutive. Talcott Parsons-Trained the next generation of thinkers. Coined Structural Functionalism. Studied biology hence organism references. The Straw Man. Wrongly seen as suggesting society is static and perfect without conflict. Believes society is based on cultural, social, personality and behavioural systems and society has a value consensus (individuals have differing but interrelated interests). People act more on values than self-interest. Grand theorist. Symbolic system-Culture transmitted through socialization Social System-Role of interaction mediated through culture in pursuit of individual gratifications Personality System-Individual needs, motivations and attitudes. Behavioural organism system-Biological affects of environment. Gemeinshaft-Expressive society, ascription, diffuseness, affectivity, particularism, collectivity Gesellschaft-Instrumental society, achievement, specificity, universalism, neutrality, self -Hoped to discover universal abstract processes for societies and small groups, assumed men and women separated into instrumental and expressive. AGIL-Adaptati
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