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SOC 3740
C Yule

CORRECTIONS EXAM NOTES Thurs Oct 18  Young & Old Prisoners Young - Prison farm: where trustworthy inmates work for govt o Reasons to keep 1) Public safety: learn skills, less alienated so safer upon release 2) Health & rehab 3) Save tax money 4) Model of Canadian values & heritage - Youth sentences not harsh enough and deserve same time as adults, but should have diff prisons o Increase chance of rehab, smaller so picked on, need diff types of help, could learn crime from older ppl - Why is custody used for youth? 1) Incapacitation: keep from society 2) Deterrence 3) Rehab: #1 goal, labelling an issue, risk sending to facility if have good program - Characteristics of young prisoners o High levels of psychiatric problems o Difficult family backgrounds o Academic problems - Why study youth in custody? o Separate facilities = developmentally vulnerable o Removal from family of origin o High on lifetime stresses (behind parental death/divorce) o Program effectiveness Old - Elderly prisoner: 50 yrs - Profile of older offenders o Incarcerated young & grew old o Multiple/serial incarcerations o Admitted late in life (most) - Challenges facing inmates o Physical, health, mental illness, bullying, relevance of programming, institutional dependency - Why lack of attention o Disinhibition of courts (ppl aren’t as aware of) o Low position in prison hierarchy (usually worse crimes therefore longer sentence) o Sustaining prisons routine (treat all ppl the same) - Cost 2-3 x higher Tues Oct 23  Gender & Punishment - Genders experience diff - “Women-centered” corrections: recognition of experiences of aboriginal women, rejects tradition of euro centric and male centered corrections programs - Creating Choices Women’s Prisons o 5 women centres principles 1) Empowerment (rather than degrade) 2) Provide meaningful consequences 3) Treat w respect 4) Physically and emotionally supportive enviro 5) Share responsibility for women’s welfare b/w staff, community, and women themselves o Less geo isolation from families, more relevant programming o BUT security still overrides healing, don't consider the women’s diffs - Key issues in women’s incarceration o Educational and vocational training: programming reflects stereotypical female occupations o Medical services: women have more serious health problems o Mothers and their children: 80% of incarcerated mothers are the single caretakers - Life Inside Out o Pains of imprisonment: families, deal w other prisoners, powerlessness, grievances not acknowledged o Cope: pets, bible, keep positive (fam visits), edu - Subcultures o Form closer relships, partnerships based on affection, form pseudo families o Higher levels social support - Womens prisons: smaller, looser security, inmate-staff relations less structured, less physical violence, less developed underground economy, less committed to inmate code, shorter sentences Thurs Oct 25  Race & Punishment - 3 main issues o Prison punishments: blacks & Aboriginals overrepresented, espesh where workers have more discretion, often in seg o Use of force: incomplete/inconsistent records o Early release for adult inmates: stereotypes, lack of knowledge READINGS - Gender responsive model predicted on 4 related theories o Relational: women are relational and primary motivation is establishing relships o Pathway: diff b/w men/women shape offending o Trauma & addictions: based on caring treatment & avoid triggering trauma Tues Oct 30/ Thurs Nov 1  Prisoner’s Rights - Limiting punishments: will someday be released therefore need to be productive, define punishments, no grievance system o Assumptions limiting prisoners rights support  They deserve it, out of sight out of mind, “bad apples” some frivolous complaints o Access to justice: hard to exercise rights in closed institution - Rights VS Privileges o Rights: legal protections enshrined in law, deal w more basic & fundamental issues, provide state accountability, general protections that protect all ppl from abuse by state, (ex. food/clothes) o Privileges: not law, earn through good behaviour, (ex. tv) - Substantive VS Procedural issues o Substantive o Procedural  Voting  Hearsay evidence  Searches  Transfer decisions  Equality  Right to counsel - Barriers to charter litigation: finances, collecting data, mootness READINGS - Legal action time consuming – only worthwhile for lifers, concern for public protection comes first Thurs Nov 8  Community Corrections - More ppl under community supervision than in prison - Why use?  overcrowding, less costly, no evidence prison works as rehab, maintain formal/community ties Probation: sentence entailing the conditional release of a convicted offender into the community under the supervision of the court (PO) subject to certain conditions - 4 core values favouring: o Convicted deserve 2 chance o Present little threat o Learned lesson o Unlikely to recidivate - Can be added to fine, can add to end of prison sentence, only up to 3 yrs - Conditions o Standard o Special  Obey law  Imposed at decision of judge or  Hold job PO  Maintain contact w PO  Community service  Remain in jurisdiction  Drug treatment/no alch  Appear before court  No driving  Pay fees  Restitution - Responsibility for parole & conditional release divided bw National Parole Board (NPB) and Correctional Services of Canada (CSC) : NPB makes decision, CSC supervises upon release READINGS - Types of conditional release: temporary absence (w or w/o escort), day or full parole, remission/discharge, statutory release Tues Nov 13  Reintegration: Life After Prison - Prisoner re-entry: process of leaving prison and returning to society, nearly all prisoners return to society o Important b/c more ppl leaving, many challenges facing o Hard to go back to “normal life”, unlearn automatic responses from prison, some scared to leave - Barriers to re-entry o Housing, employment, health, meeting other basic needs, substance use, establish new networks, manage stigma of ex prisoner, communities (some bad areas) - Invisible punishment: punishment accomplished through diminution of rights& privileges of citizenship & legal residency (ex. finding employment, accessing welfare, offender registration, voting rights) - Challenges facing women o Abuse & trauma, child custody, substance abuse o What works: comprehensive programs, community devt, community mentoring programs - Strategies for successful supervision & re-entry o Respond to violations, engage informal social controls, implement earned discharge READINGS - Direct consequences: pains of imprisonment indirect consequences: ex. disabilities, legal restrictions etc Tues Nov 20  Alternatives to Imprisonment - Earned discharge from parole: there are no opportunities to  time, punishment associated w bad behaviour, no reward for positive behaviour - Recidivism: high right after release then steadily decreases - Redemption: recidivism risk declines to level of appropriate benchmarks o discharge should be granted, incentive to remain crime free - Electronic monitoring o Advantages o Disadvantages  Less expensive
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