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PHSI 208 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Hematology, Chyle, Fibrinolysis

Course Code
PHSI 208
Baillie Landon
Study Guide

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Cardiac Midterm
Functions of the cardiovascular (CV) system
CV system is essential for most of the multicellular organisms
CV function primarily as a transport system
o Facilitates exchange
Ex) nutrients, gases, metabolites, and heat
o Enhances communication
Ex) signal molecules such as hormones
o Establishes defense (inflammatory response, antibody-antigen interaction,
Final mechanism for transport is the same as in unicellular organisms
o Ex) membrane transport and diffusion
CV system: Closed Loop System
Components of the CV System
3 basic components in human CV system
o Muscular pump (heart)
o Distribution networks (blood vessels)
o Transport Medium (blood)
1st Component
o Muscular pump
Located in the thoracic cavity
4 chambered heart
2 atria and 2 ventricles
The heart is on the ventral side of the
thoracic cavity, tilted to the right and in between
the lungs
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Heart is enclosed by pericardium filled with fluid
o For physical protection and lubrication
Cardiac Tapenade
o Buildup of pericardial fluid within the pericardial sac causes a decrease in cardiac
The ventricles occupy the bulk of the heart with the epicardial coronary arteries and
veins running along the sulci (groove) of the heart
4 chambered heart: 2 atria and 2 ventricles
With fibrous dense connective tissue rings separating atria from ventricles
There are 4 rings that surround the valves of the heart, forming the structural
foundation of the heart valves
Fibrous rings (skeleton) function as an electrical insulator, preventing the propagation of
electrical impulse from atria to ventricles through contractile myocytes
Components of the CV system
Muscular Pump
o With 5 sub-systems
1. Pacemaker & conducting systems
2. Heart muscle (myocardium)
3. Heart valves
4. Coronary circulation
5. Autonomic innervation
Pacemaker and Conducting Systems
2 basic sets of intrinsic pacemaker tissues in heart
o sinoatrial node (SA node) 70 to 80 bpm
o Atrioventricular node (AV node) 40-60 bpm
etopi fous: a part of the heart other tha the “A node that generates a heart
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Conduction of impulses from SA to left atrium
o Iteratrial pathwa Baha’s udle
Heart Muscle (myocardium)
With various wall thicknesses (proportional
to the pressure generated)
o Atria= 2mm
o Right ventricle= 3 to 4 mm
o Left ventricle = 8 to 9 mm
With 2 important features:
o Intercalated disk
Forms tightly coupled structure with neighbouring cells
o Gap junction
Forms electrical synapse with low resistance
With intercalated disks & gap junctions, cardiac muscles can contract as an unit with a
single impulse (syncytium)
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