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ANTH 330 (1)

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ANTH 330
Robert Park

Backgroundlimited quantities of resources and many possible ways to use themEconomizingthe rational allocation of scarce means or resources to alternative endsSystems toallocate scarce resourcesproduce needed commoditiesdistribute their products to all members of the societydevelop efficient consumption patterns for their products so as to help maintain their way of lifeSystems ofallocationproductiondistributionconsumptionEconomyEconomic anthropologyQuestionshow are allocation production distribution and consumption organized in different societieswhat motivates individuals in different cultures to produce to distribute or exchange and to consumeCulture and ecologyCultural ecologiststo what extent does an environment shape a peoples culturedo similar environments tend to produce similar culturesif similarities do occur what mechanisms are responsiblecan our knowledge of the relationships between culture and ecology be used to help societiesConcepts and definitions from ecologyEcologythe study of interrelationships among things in a given environmentEnvironmentall those objects and forces external to the organism with which it interacts or by which it is affectedBiomea large geographical region with similar climatic edaphic and vegetational characteristicsEcosysteman association of living organisms and inorganic substances that interact to exchange matterHabitata species addressNichea species professionits characteristic pattern of exploitation within its habitatCarrying capacitythe biomass a particular ecosystem can sustain indefinitelyConcepts and definitions from anthropologyForms of political organizationbandsconsist of a number of families living together and cooperating in economic activitiespeople come and go often from the group30100 people in a bandmake decisions collectivelyno individual job specializationall adult males do the same thingegalitarianno major difference between power prestige and wealth between people in a bandtribesmulti community political unitspan tribal sodalitieschiefdomsmulti community political unitscentral agencypolitical officehereditary positionstatesinequality is based primarily on unequal access to productive resources that all people need to make their living such as the labour and toolsstratified societiesCastes versus classesupward mobility possible in class societies but not caste societiesThe familya social and economic unit consisting minimally of one or more parents and their childrencommon formsmonogamoussingle couplenuclearpolygamous usually polygynous also polyandrousextended familyDescent groupsconsist of people linked by consanguine ties on the basis of descent from a common ancestor apical ancestorrules of descentbilateral descentunilateral descentpatrilineal descent
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