Study Guides (390,000)
CA (150,000)
UW (7,000)
ANTH (60)
Final

Course lecture notes Notes from most of the lectures. Clear and concise, very helpful for the final exam!


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTH330
Professor
Robert Park
Study Guide
Final

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 13 pages of the document.
Background
- limited quantities of resources and many possible ways to use them
- Economizing
- the rational allocation of scarce means (or resources) to alternative ends
- Systems to:
- allocate scarce resources
- produce needed commodities
- distribute their products to all members of the society
- develop efficient consumption patterns for their products so as to help maintain their
way of life
- Systems of:
- allocation
- production
- distribution
- consumption
Economy
- Economic anthropology
- Questions
- how are allocation, production, distribution, and consumption organized in different
societies?
- what motivates individuals in different cultures to produce to distribute or exchange,
and to consume?
Culture and ecology
- Cultural ecologists
- to what extent does an environment shape a people’s culture?
- do similar environments tend to produce similar cultures?
- if similarities do occur, what mechanisms are responsible?
- can our knowledge of the relationships between culture and ecology be used to help
societies?
Concepts and definitions from ecology
- Ecology
- the study of interrelationships among things in a given environment
- Environment
- all those objects and forces external to the organism with which it interacts, or by which
it is affected
- Biome
- a large geographical region with similar climatic, edaphic, and vegetational
characteristics
- Ecosystem
- an association of living organisms and inorganic substances that interact to exchange
matter
- Habitat
- a species address

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

- Niche
- a species profession
- its characteristic pattern of exploitation within its habitat
- Carrying capacity
- the biomass a particular ecosystem can sustain indefinitely
Concepts and definitions from anthropology
Forms of political organization
- bands
- consist of a number of families living together and cooperating in economic activities
- people come and go often from the group
- 30-100 people in a band
- make decisions collectively
- no individual job specialization - all adult males do the same thing
- egalitarian - no major difference between power, prestige, and wealth between people in
a band
- tribes
- multi community political units
- pan tribal sodalities
- chiefdoms
- multi community political units
- central agency/political office
- hereditary position
- states
- inequality is based primarily on unequal access to productive resources that all people
need to make their living (such as the labour and tools)
- stratified societies
Castes versus classes
- upward mobility possible in class societies but not caste societies
The family
- a social and economic unit consisting minimally of one or more parents and their children
- common forms:
- monogamous/single couple/nuclear
- polygamous (usually polygynous, also polyandrous)
- extended family
Descent groups
- consist of people linked by consanguine ties on the basis of descent from a common ancestor
(apical ancestor)
- rules of descent
- bilateral descent
- unilateral descent
- patrilineal descent

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

- matrilineal descent
- types of descent groups
- clan
- phratry
- moiety
History of Cultural Ecology Theory
Environmental Determinism
- also known as geographical determinism
Jean Bidin
- life fluids (bodily humours)
- phlegm, black bile
- phlegmatic
- bilious
Montesquieu
The enlightenment
- idea of progress
- societies were different because they expressed differences in achievement
Cultural Evolution
- unilineal cultural evolution
- Lewis Henry Morgan
- savagery
- barbarism
- civilization
Environmental/Geographical Determinism
- highly ethnocentric
- explained similarities between cultures in similar environments, but didn’t explain differences
- could only be accepted if little ethnographic evidence was known
Unilineal Cultural Evolution
- appeared to explain differences between cultures living in similar environments, and
similarities between cultures living in different environments
- assumed existence of one trajectory to cultural evolution
- similarly, could only be accepted prior to extensive ethnographic information being available
Historical Particularism
- each culture os the outcome of its particular history
- each culture has its own particular history
- every culture is unique
- but with focus on differences, what sense does it make to generalize or compare?
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version