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BIOL130 Study Guide - Final Guide: Thrombin, Glycogen, Signal Transduction

Course Code
Heidi Engelhardt
Study Guide

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Cell Communication
Why do cells need to communicate with each other?
Single celled organisms, soial life- yeast mating
Multicellular organisms, coordination of:
-development (from single cell to trillions of cells)
Coodiatig hole ody growth and development with environment
-day to day physiology
Long vs Short Range Communication (Animal Cells)
Extracellular signal molecules used in this way are hormones
Hormones produced in endocrine glands are secreted into bloodstream and are
distributed widely throughout the body (can deliver msgs over long distances)
less public process
signal molecules diffuse locally through the extracellular fluid remaining in the
neighbourhood of the cell that secretes them
act as local mediators on nearby cells (secreted signal molecule that acts at a
short range on adjacent cells)
signal molecules that regulate inflammation at the site of infection or that
control cell proliferation in a healing wound function this way
some cells respond to the local mediators that they themselves produce;
paracrine communication called autocrine signalling: cancer cells sometimes
promote their own survival and proliferation in this way
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can deliver messages over long distances
message delivered quickly and specifically to individual target cells through private lines
axon of a neuron terminates at specialized junctions (synapses) on target cells that can
lie far from the neuronal cell body
axons extend from spinal cord to big toe in adult human
when activated by signals from environment or from other nerve cells, a neuron sends
electrical impulses racing along its axon at speeds up to 100m/sec
once axon terminal is reached electrical signals converted into chemical form
each electrical impulse stimulates the nerve terminal to release a pulse of an
extracellular signal molecule called a neurotransmitter
most intimate and short range of all- doest euie elease of a seeted oleule
cells make direct physical contact through signal molecules lodged in the plasma
membrane of the signalling cell and receptor proteins embedded in the plasma
membrane of the target cell
allows adjacent cells that are initially similar to become specialized to form different cell
types during embryonic development
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Signalling Pathways
Signalling molecule synthesized and released by signalling cell
Signal molecule travels to target cell
Ligand= signal binds to receptor protein on/ in target cell
Change in protein activity (activation/ inactivation)
Change in gene expression
Chage i ell shape, oveet, etaolis, seretio…
The same signal can cause different responses, depending on the target cell
Plasma membrane
Signal transduction
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