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Final

BIOL130 Study Guide - Final Guide: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, Matthias Jakob Schleiden, Disulfide


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL130
Professor
Heidi Engelhardt
Study Guide
Final

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Biol 130 Exam Review
Unit 1: Introduction to the Cell
The Cell Theory: History
Robert Hooke
Created first microscope
Viewed cell walls
Light microscopy
Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek
Worked with glass
First to observe
o Single cell organisms (protists, bacteria, blood cells, muscle cells,
sperm)
Compound Microscope
o Improved magnification and resolution
o Animal cells 20 micrometers, Organelles 2micrometeres
The Cell Theory: Beginnings
Robert Brown Plant cells have a ‘kernel nucleus
Matthias Schleiden All cells come from previous cells
Shwann Structural similarities between plants and animals. Formulated cell
theory
Cell Theory
1. All organisms consist of one or more cells
2. The cell is the basic unit of structure for all organisms
3. All cells arise only from pre existing cells
Microscopy
Light Microscopy
Unstained or Stained
o Bright Field/ Phase Contrast/
DIC
Fluorescence Microscopy
Viewing Cytoskeleton
Electron Microscopy
Scanning EM “Whats it like”
Transmission EM “Whats inside”
Basic Properties of Cells
Have many processes that are highly conserved at the molecular level
Engage in many mechanical activities
o Transporting materials
o Assembly of structures
o Movement
Two Classes of Cells
Prokaryote no nucleous
Eukaryote true nucleus

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Biol 130 Exam Review
Hughes 2
Prokaryotic Cell
No membrane bound nucleus
Naked DNA. Single, circular strand
Cell wall in addition to plasma membrane (except mycoplasma)
Spherical cells, rod shaped cells, spiral cells
No need for cytoskeletal transport systems
Four Groups of Eukaryotes
Protists very diverse groups, mostly single celled
Fungi single cells, and multi cellular, cell walls, heterotrophs. (Cant make own
food)
Plants multicellular, cell walls
Animals multicellular, no cell walls, heterotrophs
Compartmentalization in Eukaryotic Cells
Cytoplasm everything between plasma membrane and nuclear membrane
Cytosol only fluid component
Endomembrane System internal membranes that are either in direct contact or
connected via transfer vesicles
Nucleus stores genetic information
Mitochondria generate energy to power the cell
Chloroplasts capture energy from sunlight, convert to carbohydrate
Cytoskeleton
Rough ER protein synthesis (ribosomes)
Smooth ER no protein synthesis
Lysosomes digest macromolecules, worn out organelles, brought in material
Cytoskeleton cell shape, cell movement
Endosymbiont Theory
Once believed that eukaryotes evolved gradually
Mitochondria and Chloroplasts evolved from smaller prokaryotes engulfed
by larger cell
Gives the host cell aerobic respiration/photosynthesis
Bacteria is protected by environment
Model Organisms

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Biol 130 Exam Review
Hughes 3
Unit 2a: Intro to Cellular Chemistry
What are cells made of?
Four types of atoms make up 96% of all matter found in living organisms,
CHON
Mostly comvined in complex macromolecules
Also present in simple forms CO2, H2O etc.
Water
Water is the most abundant molecule in biological organisms
Human body is 70% water
Can dissolved more types of molecules than other molecule known
The pH scale
[H+]
Ranges from 1 (1x10^-1 to 14(1x10^-14)
Ph>7 = Basic, ph<7= Acidic
pKa Values
The measure of proton binding affinity, helps distinguish between weak and strong
acids. Low pk=strong, High = weak.
pH = pK species is 50% ionized
pH>pKa eqiolibrium lies to the right
pH<pKa equilibrium lies to the left
Unit 2b: Biomolecules Proteins
Functions of Proteins
Enzymes, Transport, Cytoskeleton, Signaling/regulatory, movement, defense
Amino Acid Structure
20 types of amino acids
Amino Group, Alpha Carbon, Carboxyl Group, R Group
Zwitterion
L-amino acids make proteins
Amino Acid Sidechains
Non polar -Hydrophobic
Polar (uncharged) allow for H-Bonding
Polar (charged) Hbonding, Ionic bonding, Highly solubule
Protein Structure
New amino acids added to the C terminus (-‘ve end)
Primary sequence amino acid sequence
Secondary folding into elements of structure
Tertiatry Interactions of elements of secondary structuring forming a
global fold
Quaternary when two or more polympeptides join to form the final
functional protein
Secondary Structure of Protein
a Helices
R groups point out
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