BIOL273 Study Guide - Resting Potential, Peripheral Nervous System, Neuroglia

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Published on 22 Apr 2013
School
University of Waterloo
Department
Biology
Course
BIOL273
Professor
Biol 273 Winter 2013
Biol 273 – Unit 2 Study Questions
Nervous System:
What do we mean by central and peripheral nervous systems? How can the peripheral nervous system be
further subdivided? What are the effector organs of these subdivisions?
Describe or sketch a generalized structure of a ‘model’ neuron. What are the functions of each part?
Give examples of types of neurons grouped by a) structure and b) function.
What are glial cells? What are two types of glial cells in the PNS and four types in the CNS?
In the context of the nervous system, what is a ganglion and what is a nerve? What do the terms nuclei and tract
mean?
Resting Membrane Potential / Graded Potentials:
List the main chemical players that contribute to the electrical makeup of our bodies. In which fluid
compartments are they typically more concentrated?
Define and describe resting membrane potentials. What is/are the main factor(s) determining the resting
membrane potential?
Distinguish between the terms depolarization, hyperpolarization and repolarization.
What is an equilibrium potential? What equation predicts the equilibrium potential for a given ion? What
equation better predicts the membrane potential when multiple ions are involved?
What do we mean when we say a membrane is selectively permeable? How does a cell change its ion
permeability? How are ion channels classified?
List three types of voltage-gated ion channels discussed so far in this course, along with where they are
expressed, and what they do.
Distinguish between graded potential and action potentials. What initiates a graded potential? Why are they
called ‘graded’? What causes graded potentials to lose strength as they move through the cytoplasm?
What is the functional significance of a trigger zone?
What is the difference between excitatory and inhibitory graded potentials?
Action Potentials:
Does the strength of the graded potential that initiates an action potential have any influence on the amplitude of
the action potential?
Describe the role of Na+, K+ and voltage-gated ion channels in a) the rising phase and b) the falling phase of an
action potential. Distinguish between absolute and relative refractory periods, describing ion movements and
channel / gate configuration during each.
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Document Summary

Describe or sketch a generalized structure of a model" neuron. Give examples of types of neurons grouped by a) structure and b) function. List the main chemical players that contribute to the electrical makeup of our bodies. Distinguish between the terms depolarization, hyperpolarization and repolarization. List three types of voltage-gated ion channels discussed so far in this course, along with where they are expressed, and what they do. Describe the role of na+, k+ and voltage-gated ion channels in a) the rising phase and b) the falling phase of an action potential. Distinguish between absolute and relative refractory periods, describing ion movements and channel / gate configuration during each. Describe or sketch the events at a synapse that result in neurotransmitter release. Compare the sites of synthesis of acetylcholine versus a neuropeptide. List four amino acid neurotransmitters in the cns. Indicate for both sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways what neurotransmitters would be released.

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