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Midterm

BIOL 302 midterm 1 study notes.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 302
Professor
Mungo Marsden
Semester
Fall

Description
Epithelium- function: protection, absorption, secretion, transport and barrier; no blood vessels; cells held together by cell junctions, polarity of cells allows for orientation of nuclei listed below; Identify epithelium based on mesothelium or endothelium Characterize Appearance Function Located Notes Simple Squamous Flat cell with Lines passive transport Walls of blood nuclei popping out capillaries, in lungs for air exchange Simple Cubodinal Square cell with Lines small ducts and Tubules in kidneys nuclei in middle tubules that secrete/excrete/absorb Simple Columnar Rectangular with Found on absorptive Small intestines, nuclei at the surfaces or lines stomach bottom and elongated Simple columnar Hair like structures Usually secretory Female reprod ciliated on columnar functions, cilia propels tract fluid/particles over surface Pseudostratified Disorganized Airways of columnar ciliated columnar; respiratory system multiple nuclei Stratified Multiple layers In physically stressed environment Stratified Multiple layers of Well adapted to Pharynx, oral squamous squamous withstand abrasions cavity since loss of cells does not affect underlying tissue Transitional Pillow top; Makes urinary tract Found in the intermediate waterproof; and allows urinary tract between of stretch squamous and cubodinal Stratified Thin, stratified 2-3 Lining of large Salivary glands cubodinal layer excretory ducts, provides robust lining Junctions- Name Appearance Function Located Notes Demosomes Very dark stain, Very strong, hold Anchored to Happens right criss cross in the epithelia together cytoskeleton via after adherein, middle intermediate made up of filaments; 3rd keratin junction Tight Blocks ink from Blocks movement, Most apical or Stuff inbetween moving regulates juntions the cells are transport between proteins that cells make up the nd junction Adhering 2 junction Not very stable, Just below tight Consists of many allows cells to junction cadherins; these build in between/ build first and anchor then tight membranes junctions build Gap Last junction Allows for Made up on communication connexons SPECIALIZED MODIFICATIONS Name Appearance Function Located Notes Cilia Hair like structure, Mobility-good for Female reprod Made up of 9+2 9+2 arrangement, moving things microtubules basal bodies; 25- filaments 75% of cell size Microvilli Brush border, very Increases surface Male repro system Actin core, cannot small, will not be area for actively move able to see; less absorption than 50% of nuclei size Stereocilia Very long; hair Possibly Male reprod with gel absorption Terminal Bars Vertical lines Proteins are Lateral inbetween the present-no real specializations cells function Hemidesmosome Dark at the Cell substrate On basal surface Half of a bottom adhesion that anchor desmosome, basal epithelial to basal specialization lamina GLANDS, AND OTHER CELLS Name Characterize Appearance Function Location Notes Goblet Cells Unicellular Ice cream cone Modified Respiratory exocrine gland shaped columnar system epithelial cells that synthesize and secrete mucus Exocrine glands Similar to a Maintains mesocrine=secrete stained shape connection to directly surface, secretion -apocrine=vesicle empty to free -holocrine-whole surface cell discharged Endocrine glands Cord of cells Separate from Larger glands, no surface, secretion ducts; capillaries transported via present circulatory system,
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