CLAS104 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Aphrodite Urania, Athena, Dione (Titaness)

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The Gods
The Olympians
oOffspring of Rhea & Cronus
Hestia (Vesta in Roman)
God of Hearth and family
God of religion
Virgin goddess
First born
Hades (Pluto)
God of the Underworld
Solemn but not evil and very well respected
Very serious mature male
Hades opens a chasm runs out with his chariot and grabs Persephone for
his wife
Persephone was the daughter of Zeus
Poseidon (Neptune)
God of the sea
Known for his trident
God of horses and fisherman
Direct offspring of Rhea and Cronus
Demeter (Ceres)
Daughter of Rhea and Cronus
God of the harvest and agriculture
Grains
Mother of Persephone
Winter is when Persephone is part of the underworld for quarter of
the year
Mature women, matron
Hera (Juno)
God of women and marriage
Wife of Zeus
Shrewish, vindictive, majestic
Always nagging Zeus
Always punishing Zeus's offspring and object of Zeus's desire
The queen to Zeus's king
Very respected and honored by all of olympus
Zeus (Jupiter/Jove)
Main god
God of the sky and upholder of the universe
Yielding his lightning bolt
Upholder of justice
Rights and duties of guests and hosts
Descendants of Zeus were elected to high office
Supreme in power
Aphrodite has some power over him with lust
Overcome by the power of Aphrodite
The shame came from mingling with mortals
Zeus cannot overpower fate but sometimes he does apparently
Zeus is a glorified version of man
Monogamous society
Men allowed multiple lovers and women were not
At one point there might have been a revolt when Hera, Poseidon and
Athena bound up Zeus in chains
Thetis, mother of Achilles saved him
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Worshipped at Dadona
From a black dove that spoke with a human voice talking about the
need for an oracle to be established
Other black dove went to libya where another oracle scared to Zeus
was established
Offspring of Zeus
Hera
Ares (Mars) God of War
Greeks preferred Athena more
Romans highly respected Mars
Gods are allowed to go help the Trojan War
Ares gets injured by a mortal Diomedes
Zeus has no sympathy when Ares complains
Greeks saw war as double sided (positive and negative)
Positive aspects of war was attributed to Athena
Negative aspects of war was attributed to Ares
Father of Eros with Aphrodite
Hephaestus (Vulcan)
One version says he sprang from Hera without Zeus's help
or Zeus is the father
Hephaestus protects Hera from Zeus
Craftsmen god (Smith) and God of fire
Often perceived with a tool of some sort
Has to forge chains to hold Prometheus to the rock
Hephaestus hobbles and disabled
Ambiguous attitude to craftsmen
Stayed inside all the time and hunched over all the
time
Married to Aphrodite even though Hephaestus was
deformed
Aphrodite always screwed around with Ares
Hephaestus suspected Aphrodite
He set a net above his bed and left
Aphrodite and Ares started rocking the bed and set
the net off
Hephaestus called the rest of the gods to see and
mock them
Poseidon said to stop mocking him
Works in a forge under the earth with 3 cyclopes (who
forged Zeus's thunderbolt) as his assistants
Lemnos was a center of worship for him
Volcanos were said to be his forges
Once he was purposely embarrassed himself and served
wine to all the gods to avoid strife
Aphrodite was cheating on him with Ares so Hephaestus
trapped them with chains and called upon all the gods to laugh at them
Poseidon made him release Ares and vowed if Ares
did not pay up Poseidon would do it himself in his stead
Hebe cf. Ganymede
Hebe was a women cup bearer who became Heracles wife
after he wins immortality
Embodiment of youthful beauty
Table servant of the gods
Zeus was questionably bisexual
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Some versions say Zeus raped Ganymede
Greeks had a sex cycle of
Males are sought after by older men when they are
young
When they grow a beard they are no longer
desirable
When they are 20s and grow their beard they look
for younger male
After 30s they get married
Sexuality wasn't a big deal as long as you were
actively participating in it
i.e. sex
Eileithyia
Goddess of child birth
Hera or Eileithyia have to be present when a child is born
Leto (Titaness)
Apollo and Artemis (Diana)
Metis
Athena (Minerva)
From Zeus's head when pregnant Metis is swallowed
Dione (Titaness)
Aphrodite (Venus)
The second version
Maia (Nymph)
Hermes (Mercury)
Semele! (Mortal Princess)
Only case where Zeus mates with a mortal and gives birth to god
Dionysus (Bacchus, Liber)
Memory (Mnesoyne)
9 Muses
Patroness of the arts and specialize in their own respect
Themis
The Three Fates
The Three Fates are also said to be children of Night and Erebus in
other versions
Clotho (Spinner), Lachesis (Apportioner), Atropos (Inflexible)
The Olympian List
o(Hestia), (Hades), Demeter, Poseidon, Hera, Zeus, Ares, Aphrodite, Apollo, Artemis,
Athena, Hephaestus, Hermes, Dionysus
oHestia didn't really do much as the Goddess of the Hearth
oHades doesn't really involve with festivities on Olympus
Nature of the Gods
oAnthropomorphic
Personified as humans
Acts like humans
Fight, family, superpowers
oIdealized
Perfectly beautiful and in form
Amazing powers
Superhuman
Can take for of any animal at will
oImmortal
oPolytheistic
Development
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