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Classical Studies
CLAS 201
Nicholas Maes

October 4: 60 m/c questions **********************************LECTURE 1 ************************************** Greek Miracle – Homer – Iliad, Odyssey - Hesoid – theogony works and days _ Aeschylus - Agamemnon - Choephorol - Eumenides - Sopholles - Oedipusrex - Anngone - Ajax - Euripides - Bacchae - Medea - Hippolytus - Aristophanes - Frogs - Lysistrata - Acharnians - Herodotus – father of history - Thucydides Greeks – 1 democratic civilization - philosophy, natural science, athletics (Olympics/non-lethal competition, no st team sports though), drama, history (word), biology, math – 1 of all of these - public opinion was allowed o rarely prosecuted - very multi cultural - worship anything – didn’t really care - no shock because of homosexuals (thought to be natural) Sources of our information: - physical remains (pots, coins) - texts Minoan Period (2000-1400) Mycenaean (true greek history) (1600-1150) Dark Age (1150-776) – 1 Olympic games Archaic (776-490) – Persian wards Classical (490-323) – death of Alexander the Great Hellenistic (323-30) Who were the greeks? - the name “Greek” came from the Romans - they would have called themselves Hellas, or Hellenes o Deucalion (male), Pyrrha (female)  Mimics our Noah’s Arc story (they were the chosen people) o Hellenus (son of them) marries a stone person  Makes Achaeus, Dorus (spartans), Lyuthus (ion), Aeolus (die out) o Jews call them Yevan 3 Populations gave rise to the Greeks 1. Pelasgians (4000 BCE) - In Greece but not culturally similar 2. Minoans - on island of Crete - Arthur Evans researched this island - Very little in common ethnically with mycenian - Culture influenced the Greek - Named based on King Minos (mythical king of Crete) - King Minos o Son of Zeus o Loves Poisiden o Poisiden gives him a bull from the sea, but King Minos steals it o pisses Poisiden off, poisiden makes Phaedia (wife of Minos) fall in love with the bull o she gets pregnant, and gives birth to a minotaur (0.5horse/0.5human) o makes labyrinth - thalassocracy (ruled by the sea)  minoan civilization had wide range trade  main city – Knossos  palace system, no walls for protection  artwork is always peacefully themed  Frescoes (art)  Bulls jumping (bull is very central)  Bull’s horns  Religion is cathonic  Cathon = earth  Mother (earth) goddesses  Males consort (subordinate)  Fertility – come from and return to the earth o Circle of life o Some promise of immortality  Return to goddess Olympian religion - male based  associated with astar - unbridgeable gap between mortals and gods - Mycenaean more olympians than cathonic Minoan Writing System - Linear A  syllabary (80-90 syllables) - Linear B Michael Ventris proved it was an early form of Greek 3. Indo- Europeans (Aryans) - William Jones (linguist) worked in India as a judge o Father – pere – padre – pitar – pater o All have object markers and form tenses in similar ways o Zeus – father Zeus (lightening bolt of Dios Zeus)  Jupiter, sometimes diespiter  Dyauspitar o He argued they all must have at one point been together - Originally in Russian  migrated outward - 2500-2000  Helladic arrived to Greek mainland **********************************LECTURE 2 ************************************** Polascians – indegineous population Menoyans – centered on the island of crete - sporatic contact with the greeks - palace structure, linear A, extensive trade contact, Indo-Europeans – started on Russian steps and went off towards turkey and towards greek mainland and modern day italy and northern parts and modern iran and another to india and another to china (around 2000 BCE) - Olympian religion - Did not live in cities, menoyans introduce them into civiliazation leads to: Myceneans (1600-1200) - first Greek civilization - would have called themselves Achaeans - Heinrich Schliemann wanted to find out who Homer was. called them Mycenaeans - wrote linear B - physical remains Citadels (walled) - Mycenae, Tiryns, Argos, Pylos o homogenous culture, but they did go to war at times Heinrich schiemann - dug up these cities - he did this after he read Homer Mycenae - city that belongs to Agamemnon Agamemnon Cyclopean – stones that only the powerful Cyclops would have been able to lift - early myceneaen towns made of these stones Architecture Shaft graves – found in Mycenae - jewels and gold showed that it was a wealthy population Tholoi – honeycombs - covered in earth, 12 m high, and deposit the body there along with wealth Artwork - depicts Martial/hunting/war Scenes - anger and violence can be involved Linear B – Greek - related to linear A (Knossos) Michael Ventris - proved they were a form of very early greek foreign trade - trading constantly in a wide range of the meditarean - cyrus, eqypt, crete, modern Syria/Israel and sicily pottery - found distributed in the above places - obviously there was contact violent - mycenaeans moved over to crete and torched Knossos - mayoan population carries on in a weaker form Egypt invaded - mycenaeans took over Egypt - (odyssey) troy - mycenaeans fought in troy - Schliemann decided troy was somewhere in modern Turkey - Troy was charging them a fee when they went into the sea and out o Mycenaeans ask why?! – so they claim war - Hissarlik - told Schliemann to dig here to find what you are looking for (ancient troy is supposed to be there) - He found GA (Nine cities) Dardanelles/Hellespont Homer 1) influence 2) story 3) historical connection 4) poetry 1) influence a. iliet and odessey (750 BCE) came out b. vase paintings depicting the iliet or odessey (650 BCE) c. citations i. rework the works of the iliet and odessey ii. constantly referring to Homer d. Hellenistic papyri i. Over 50 percent are manuscripts of the illiet and odessey ii. Homer connected them to “home” everyone wanted to read him e. Alexander the Great i. Known for carrying his copy of Homer with him ii. He thought he was the reincarnated various of Heciles 2) Story - Epic cycle – stories about the Trogian war and related mythological issues a. Cypria - zeus and Prometheus i. 1 part of the epic cycle ii. comes in a fragmented state (only illiad and odessey came complete) iii. deals with causes of the war and the first ten years of the war iv. causes of war – Zeus was not always ruler of the universe , he took his thrown over with the help of Prometheus v. Prometheus really loved humans, feels sorry for us so he gave us fire vi. Zeus doesn’t like this, so he makes an eagle feeds on Prometheus’ liver everyday vii. Prometheus – his name means forethought so he can understand the future viii. He tells Zeus that he will marry a godess and have a child, the child will be more powerful than you and will take your thrown ix. Prometheus tells Zeus the godess he has to avoid is 1. Thetis x. He marries Thetis off to a mortal – Peleus (their son is Heciles) 1. Heciles is doomed to die xi. Everyone attends this wedding, except Eris – Strife xii. Eris-strife shows up anyways to ruin the party. Throws an apple into there, xiii. 3 godesses go after the apple - Athena, hera, aphrodite xiv. they turn to Zeus – “which one of us is the prettiest and deserves the apple” and Zeus tells Paris to decide b. Judgment of Paris i. Judge which one is the fairest ii. Goddesses try to bribe him iii. Athena – I will make you the wisest god around iv. Hera – I will make you a very powerful king v. Aphrodite – if you chose me I will give you the sexiest woman alive vi. In the end he chooses Aphrodite vii. Hera and Athena are now enemies of anything to do with Paris viii. Paris fights Menelaus, if Paris wins he gets Helen, if Menelaus wins he takes his wife back and leaves, aphrodite allows Paris to escape c. Priam-troy d. Tynadareus married to Leda/Zeus appears to Leda as a swan i. The swan gets her pregnant and gives birth to Helen e. Helen i. Most dazzling woman ii. Everyone wants her for marriage iii. Tynadareus makes all the suiters swear an oath to protect Helen from potential people who try to steal her from her husband f. Menelaus – Helen’s husband, has mortality i. Aphrodide helps Paris get Helen from Menelaus ii. Menelaus evokes the Oath that they have been sworn iii. And the Trogian war breaks out g. Rape of Helen h. Xenia – Xenos (host and the guest) i. Hospitality ii. Greeks are duty bound to help strangers, feed, bathe, bedded iii. And when he or a relative comes to your territory, you are duty bound to do the exact same thing he did for you iv. Stealing Helen would violate this, greeks would be appalled v. Xenos does not kill xenos i. Zeus xenios i. Zeus is responsible for Xenios ii. Zeus will take wrath on those who don’t follow this j. zeus horkios i. institution of swearing of oaths ii. if you do not deliver on your side of the bargain, then you will have to answer to Zeus k. Zeus hikesios i. Responsible for people known as suppliants ii. You are in battle, you an kill people on the battlefield, but if you catch him without a weapon and he throws himself at mercy of you on his knees but good manners suggest you take him prisoner and ransom him back to his family b) Iliad - tenth year – 3 crucial days (not the beginning nor the ending of the war) - 1 word of the book “Menis” (“wrath” of Achilles) o Menis is what gods feel, not humans (greeks appreciated great rage) - Trogians have lost so many times, that they lock themselves into their walls - Achillies starts attacking neighboring cities and taking them - Agamemnon has contributed the most number of ships but not the best warrior; that’s Achillies - Achilles – Briseis a woman (his share of the city goods they captured) - Agamemnon – Chryseis a woman (his share) - Chryses – Apollo (father of Chryseis) o Pleas Agamemnon to return Chryseis to him for a fair price o Agamemnon says get out of here, no deal. o Chryses prays to Apollo  Apollo (god of medicine/plaque) comes to Chryses call - Plague o Apollo causes this plague to kill the greeks - Calchas o Achillies asks Calchas why this is happening, and Calchas tells them the story about Agamemnon and Chryses. o Recommends he give Chryseis back right away o Agamemnon says no. He wants something great in exchange if he has to. Achillies gets mad at Agamemnon for threating to take Briseis. o Achillies gives Briseis to Agamemnon and walks off the field, stops
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