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Julia Roberts

ENGL 210F: Exam Notes December 8, 2012: PAC P23 Module 2: The Writing Process  Includes : Prewriting, Organizing, Drafting, Revising and Editing  Prewriting: purpose (to keep record, to give instructions, to encourage action or promote goodwill), scope ( what is the level of detail required , how long does it have to be , format and are visuals required) and audience ( ask yourself what their position is , what their interests could be, their knowledge and if they will be neutral , resistant or receptive to your communication)  To pick the appropriate medium of communication consider : accuracy, speed, cost and permanence , privacy , audience and feedback ( how fast you need the response) Module 3: Memos, Emails, Routine Internal Communications (p.142 has examples of bad memos)  Emails are used since they create a record unlike phone conversations or meetings, they reach a wider audience using CC, communicates with sensitivity, used for internal and informal external communication  Memos : header and message , less formal than an email , usually one page  Memo Format TO: FROM: RE: DATE: Be direct and start with your most important point (when giving instructions or routine news) End with a request for specific action, reason for request or deadline (Please and Thanks!)  Email Format Subject: Date: From: To: Hi …, Regards , ( if not functioning as a memo) Module 4: Word Choice, Conciseness and Tone  Business Style: the rules, conventions and options to be considered when you write something, reflects how your company does business, gives off a perception of what the business stands for.  Tone : is reflected through word choice, sentence length and structure  Style : try to be clear and concise Module 5: Persuasive Writing  Emotion (pathos), logic ( logos) and ethos  In order to persuade we must make our request reasonable and beneficial, providing enough information that will override resistance. It helps if you understand your reader’s needs.  Persuasive messages appeal to the reader’s : sense of reason ( use logical argumentation so they agree with you, support with stats and expert opinions ) , emotions ( use in order to create a desire to act)and sense of right / ethics ( your credibility and reputation is important )  Toulmin’s Model of Argumentation: the claim, the grounds, the warrant, the backing, qualifier , rebuttal  Claim : describes what you are attempting to persuade / prove  Grounds: facts that support your claim , must have strong sources of evidence  Warrant : link between claim and grounds , implied ( why you want to do the action you are attempting to persuade readers on )  Backing : additional support for the warrant ( The Friend) additional but less crucial facts ( just padding :P)  Qualifier : stabilizes the bridge between the claim and the warrant, if something goes wrong then the claim is false  Rebuttal : a preemptive strike , quick thinking on what the reader could disagree on and what your solution to that is ( time or money related)  Use indirect writing style as it breaks down the resistance and slowly warms up the reader ( Make mor
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