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Midterm Notes

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Geoff Hayes

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The Boer War 09/17/2013
Canada in 1901
Population: 5.3 million
2 million in Ontario
1.7 million in Quebec
178,000 in British Columbia
1871: 91% of Canadians are either English or French
Sir Wilfrid Laurier
Elected in 1896 – 1911
First French-Canadian Minister
Most apparent in BC
Imported British institutions
Do not like Catholics or French Canadians
Laurier’s Dilemma: 1897
Diamond jubilee : Victoria on the throne for 60 years
Knighted Laurier
Sun never sets on British empire
So many colonies
British vs. Boer people
Over Slavery
British ultimatum rejected over insistence that the Boers give rights to non-residents
Canadian Public opinion?
Pro War: Ontario, Western Ontario, IODE,
See it as a challenge to British empire
Anti-War: French Canadian – identified with Boers
October 31, 1899
Laurier says they will dispatch no more than 1000 people – not a precedent, won’t always answer
the call
Bourassa resigns his seat
Unprofessional & “volunteerish” officers
Won’t go to war without coalition?
Arrival in South Africa
Black Week: arrival of Canadians
Mafeking, Kimberly, Ladysmith under siege
Embarrassing to Britain
Precedent Set when Canada sends two more contingents (8000 troops total)
Australian response: sent about 16,000 troops
Paardeberg, February 1900
Way to end war is to take capital
18 Feb, 1900: Bloody Sunday
21 Canadians killed
63 wounded
Canada’s worst day in the Boer war
10 day siege follows
February 27: Majuba Day
Anniversary of first Anglo-Boer war: British defeated
Most people dying of disease
Bad logistics
Battle of Paardeberg
6 companies go in : 2:00 am: attempt sneak attack, Boer’s hear them and take fire. 4 companies
retreat, but 2 didn’t hear the order to withdraw. Appears that there are more British than
originally thought. Boer’s surrender.
Reach Boer capital by June
No one realizes war is over, including the Boer’s
Gorilla warfare: drives British crazy
Boer’s becomes represented by dishonesty
British fight with counter-insurgency : fight nasty
Burn down homes & farms
Canadians tried to stop it
Pop culture reference ?

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The Boer War 09/17/2013 Canada in 1901 Population: 5.3 million 2 million in Ontario 1.7 million in Quebec 178,000 in British Columbia 1871: 91% of Canadians are either English or French Sir Wilfrid Laurier Liberal Elected in 1896 – 1911 First French­Canadian Minister Imperialism Most apparent in BC Imported British institutions Do not like Catholics or French Canadians Laurier’s Dilemma: 1897 Diamond jubilee : Victoria on the throne for 60 years  Knighted Laurier Sun never sets on British empire So many colonies  British vs. Boer people Over Slavery British ultimatum rejected over insistence that the Boers give rights to non­residents  Canadian Public opinion? Pro War: Ontario, Western Ontario, IODE,  See it as a challenge to British empire Anti­War: French Canadian – identified with Boers  October 31, 1899 Laurier says they will dispatch no more than 1000 people – not a precedent, won’t always answer  the call Bourassa resigns his seat Sardinian Overcrowded Undisciplined Unprofessional & “volunteerish” officers Won’t go to war without coalition?  Arrival in South Africa Black Week: arrival of Canadians Mafeking, Kimberly, Ladysmith under siege Embarrassing to Britain Precedent Set when Canada sends two more contingents (8000 troops total) Australian response: sent about 16,000 troops Paardeberg, February 1900 Way to end war is to take capital 18 Feb, 1900: Bloody Sunday 21 Canadians killed 63 wounded Canada’s worst day in the Boer war 10 day siege follows February 27: Majuba Day Anniversary of first Anglo­Boer war: British defeated Most people dying of disease Bad logistics Battle of Paardeberg 6 companies go in : 2:00 am: attempt sneak attack, Boer’s hear them and take fire.  4 companies  retreat, but 2 didn’t hear the order to withdraw.  Appears that there are more British than  originally thought. Boer’s surrender. Reach Boer capital by June No one realizes war is over, including the Boer’s Gorilla warfare: drives British crazy Boer’s becomes represented by dishonesty British fight with counter­insurgency : fight nasty Burn down homes & farms Canadians tried to stop it Pop culture reference ? Treaty signed in 1902 So what?: Legacy 7, 368 men and 16 nurses dispatched 270 killed Memory of War  ?  the monument is tall : look up to the sky & the heavens – defending the empire more personal monument: 3 fellows  different perspectives: Anglophone vs. Francophone.  Farmer vs. IODE NEVER ONE SINGLE ANSWER Ypres 09/17/2013 Origins of the First World War MAIN: Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, Nationalism Treaty of Versailles: Article 231 – the war guilt clause.  Germany and it’s allies are responsible for the first world war. Reaction  was: not at all.  Politicians denounced article 231.  Reaction became so extensive that all (educated) people said that it could not  possibly be entirely Germany’s fault – too many little factors Canada’s Answer:  Create a mass enlistment – asks for 25,000 people to enlist: 36,000 people show up – demonstrates close connection to Great  Britain First Battle of Ypres Race to the sea: meet up in Ypres, Belgium – creates a front line in the fall of 1914 First graveyards dug The British Order of Battle Three Divisions – 18,000 all ranks
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