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Study Guide

[HLTH 101] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (77 pages long)


Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTH101
Professor
Glenn Ward
Study Guide
Final

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UW
HLTH 101
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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HLTH 101
Fall, 2012
TOPIC 2: CHANGES IN HUMAN
HEALTH STATUS
In order to fully understand the nature of health and disease,
we need to try to understand the history of human health. We
may hear people say that we’re less healthy now than we’ve
been for hundreds of years, or that there was a time in the past
when people were somehow living in harmony with nature and
therefore lived long lives blessed with good health. While some
people in the past did live long healthy lives, and while many
aspects of modern life are harmful to our health, health is one of
those (few?) aspects of our existence that has clearly improved
over our history. We’ll see that this improvement hasn’t been
steady but, instead, has occurred mainly over the past 180 years.
You’ll also notice that we are usually referring to the health of
human populations over time rather than of individual humans
during their lifetime. As you learned in the first lecture, this is the
population health approach, and it is the approach we will be
relying upon through most of this course.
SUPPLEMENTAL READINGS (Recommended but not
Required)
i. Armelagos, G.J., Brown, P.J., and Turner, B. (2005).
Evolutionary, historical and political economic perspectives
on health and disease.
Social Science and Medicine
, 61: 755-
765.
This review article surveys the history of human health and
mortality and is a good introduction to many of the ideas that
will be expressed throughout this course.
ii. Omran, A.R. (2005). The epidemiologic transition: A theory of
the epidemiology of population change.
The Milbank Quarterly
,
83: 731-757.
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HLTH 101
Fall, 2012
This is a good introduction to the so-called "epidemiologic
transition" that occurred throughout the past 160-200 years. It
is from the Millbank Quarterly. If you can't access it from the
link to the electronic library, then try cutting and pasting the
following URL into your web browser:
http://www.milbank.org/quarterly/830418omran.pdf
LECTURE NOTES:
THE HISTORY OF HUMAN MORTALITY
(Note: much of the information in the following sections is from John
Cairns' book "Matters of life and death: perspectives on public health,
molecular biology, cancer, and the prospects for the human race",
published by Princeton University Press, 1997.)
INTRODUCTION
Recall from lecture one the first of our first principles of health research and
practice: human health status can change over time. Few of you would argue
against the proposition that health status can change over an individualʼs lifetime.
Obviously, we acquire more health problems at certain times of our lives, and all
of you have probably heard already that we consume most health care resources
during the last few years, months, or even weeks, of our lives.
But what about human health in general? Has it changed over the centuries? If
so, in what way has it changed? What factors contributed to the change? This is
an important question for anyone who strives to play a leadership role in health.
Understanding the reasons human health changed in the past can lead to greater
ability to change human health in the future. Therefore, weʼll spend a bit of time
briefly reviewing the history of human mortality.
1/ PALEOLITHIC ERA
40,000 - 10,000 years ago (also known as the upper paleolithic era)
humans lived predominantly as hunter/gatherers
evidence of health status obtained from gravesites
generally, evidence suggests that they were well nourished (good
protein nutrition, appropriate fat intake, good complex
carbohydrate nutrition)
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find more resources at oneclass.com
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