Test 2.docx

22 Pages

Human Resources Management
Course Code
HRM 200
Katrina Di Gravio

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CHAPTER 8: ORIENTATION & TRAINING - Employee Orientation (onboarding) = a procedure for providing new employees with basic background info about the firm and the job 1/ Socialization  ongoing process of instilling in all employees the prevailing attitudes, standards, values, and patterns of behaviour that are expected by the organization 2/ Reality Shock  discrepancy between what new employee expects from his/her new job and realities of it - Purpose of Orientation programs:  improved job performance  reduced first day jitters and reality shock  foundation for ongoing performance management  improved productivity  improved retention levels and reduced recruitment costs - Special orientation situations:  diverse workforce  mergers and acquisitions  union versus non-union employees  multi-location organizations - Problems:  too much information in a short time leading to an overwhelmed employee  too many forms to fill out  little or no orientation provided  HR information too broad; supervisory information too detailed - Evaluation of Orientation programs: Employee Reaction. Socialization Effects. Cost/Benefit Analysis -Training Process: Training = 1/ Training needs analysis  determine what training is required, if any  for new employees, determine what the job entails and break it down into subtasks, each of which is taught to the new employee  for current employees, determine whether or not training is the solution Task Analysis (assess training needs of new employees)  task list  when and how often performed  quantity and quality of performance  conditions under which performed  competencies and specific knowledge required  where best learned Performance Analysis (determine training needs of current employees)  verify performance deficiency and determine whether deficiency should be rectified through training or some other means 2/ Instructional Design  prepare curriculum  ensure training materials support learning objectives  ensure quality and effectiveness of program elements Traditional training techniques: o on-the-job training o apprenticeship training o informal learning o job instruction training o classroom training o audiovisual techniques o programmed learning o vestibule or simulated training E-Learning: o delivery and administration of learning opportunities and support via computer, networked, and web-based technology, to enhance employee performance and development o flexible, personalized and cost effective 3/ Validation  an often-overlooked step in the training process  validate training using representative audience  make revisions based on pilot results 4/ Implementation  once the program has been validated, it is ready to be implemented by professional trainers  train-the-trainer workshops may be required  focus on presentation as well as content 5/ Training Evaluation Reaction --> Learning --> Behaviour --> Results Training for special purposes: Literacy and essential skills training. Diversity training. Customer service training. Training for teamwork. Training for first-time supervisors. Training for global business. - Ethical dilemma: Is it ethical to require employees to participate in weekend and evening training programs if they do not want to because it is going to take time that they would otherwise spend on personal and family responsibilities? RECAP: 1. What is Orientation? 2. What is the purpose of Orientation? 3. What are the problems with Orientation? 4. How can you evaluate Orientation? 5. What are the 6 steps in creating a training program? 6. How do we know if training is effective? CHAPTER 9: CAREER DEVELOPMENT - Career planning & development = process through which an employee becomes aware of personal career-related attributes and the lifelong series of activities that contribute to his or her career fulfillment - Roles in career development:  the individual, the manager and the employer all have roles in the individual's career development  ultimately, however, it is the individual who must accept responsibility for his or her own career - Individual's role in career development:  accept responsibility for own career  requires: o self-motivation o independent learning o effective time and money management o self-promotion  networking is the foundation of effective career management - Manager's role in career development:  provide timely and objective performance feedback  offer developmental assignments and support  participate in career development discussions  act as coach, appraiser, advisor, and referral agent - Employer's role in career development:  provide training and development opportunities  offer career information and career programs  offer a variety of career options - Factors that affect career choices: Identify Career Stage  growth stage (birth to age 14)  exploration stage (age 15 to 24)  establishment stage (age 24 to 44)  maintenance stage (age 45 to 65)  decline stage (retirement age) Identify Occupational Orientation  realistic  investigative  social  conventional  enterprising  artistic Identify a Career Anchor – a concern or value you will not give up if a choice must be made:  technical/functional  managerial competence  creativity  autonomy and independence  security  service/dedication  pure challenge  lifestyle - Responsibilities of the organization:  provide realistic job previews  avoid reality shock  provide challenging initial jobs  be demanding  provide period developmental job rotation  provide career oriented performance appraisals  provide career planning workshops  provide opportunities for mentoring  become a learning organization - Managing Transfers:  greater possibility of advancement  personal enrichment  more interesting job  greater convenience  two-thirds of transfers refused due to family/spousal concerns - Making promotion decisions:  Is Seniority or Competence the Rule?  How Is Competence Measured?  Is the Process Formal or Informal?  Vertical, Horizontal, or Other Career Path? - Management development = attempt to improve current or future management performance by imparting knowledge, changing attitudes, or increasing skills - Management development process:  the ultimate aim of management-development programs is to achieve business strategy  the management-development process consists of: o assessing HR needs to achieve strategic objectives o creating a talent pool o developing managers - Succession planning = a process through which senior-level and critical strategic job openings are planned for and eventually filled  successful succession planning begins with CEO leadership and involvement in the following steps: o establishing a strategic direction for the organization o identifying core skills and competencies needed in jobs that are critical to achieve the strategy o identifying people inside the organization who have, or can acquire, those skills and providing them with developmental opportunities - On-the-job Management-development techniques: Developmental job rotation. Coaching/Understudy approach. Action learning. - Off-the-job Management-development techniques:  case study method  management games  outside seminars  college/university related programs  role playing  behaviour modeling  in-house development centres - Executive development  Canada facing a shortage of leadership talent  three basic requirements for successful leadership are knowledge, competency, character  six categories of leadership competencies: o self-mastery o futuring/vision o sense-making/thinking o design of intelligent action o aligning people to action/leading o adaptive learning - Ethical dilemma: Is it ethical for employers to keep promotion policies and procedures secret in an era of flattened organizations, where so many employees who aspire to higher positions will not get them but might achieve them elsewhere? RECAP: 1. Who’s responsibility is employee development? 2. What factors can affect Career Choices? CHAPTER 10: PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT -Performance management = process encompassing all activities related to improving employee performance, productivity, and effectiveness  includes goal setting, pay for performance, training and development, career management, and disciplinary action Performance Management Process contains five steps: 1. defining performance expectations 2. providing ongoing feedback and coaching 3. conducting performance appraisal and evaluation discussions 4. determining performance rewards/consequences such as promotions, salary, increases and bonuses 5. conducting development and career opportunities discussions 1/ Defining performance expectations  job description often insufficient to clarify performance expectations  measurable standards related to strategic objectives should be developed for each position 2/ Providing ongoing coaching & feedback  important to have open two-way communication  both the employee and the manager need to check in frequently throughout the performance management process to talk about progression toward goals 3/ Performance appraisal & evaluation discussion  the appraisal itself is generally conducted with the aid of a predetermined and formal method such as: o graphic rating scale a scale that lists a number of traits and a range of performance for each the employee is then rated by identifying the score that best describes his or her level of performance for each trait o alternation ranking method ranking employees from best to worst on a particular trait o paired comparison method ranking employees by making a chart of all possible pairs of employees for each trait and indicating the better employee of the pair o forced distribution method predetermined percentages of rates are placed in various performance categories Eg. it may be decided to distribute employees as follows: 15 percent high performers, 20 percent high-average performers, 30 percent average performers, 20 percent low-average performers, 15 percent low performers o critical incident method keep a record of uncommonly good/undesirable examples of an employee's work-related behaviour & reviewing the list w/ employee at predetermined times o narrative forms evaluate employees o behaviourally anchored rating scales an appraisal method that aims to combine the benefits of narratives, critical incidents & quantifies ratings by anchoring a quantified scale w/ specific narrative examples of good & poor performance 1. generate critical incidents job experts specify effective and ineffective performance 2. develop performance dimensions cluster the incidents into a smaller set of performance dimensions 3. reallocate incidents different experts group incidents into same clusters and retain incidents similarly assigned twice 4. scale the incidents rate the behaviour described in the incident as to how effectively or ineffectively it represents performance 5. develop the final instrument a subset of the incidents is used as behavioural anchors for each dimension Advantages: more accurate measure, clearer standards, assists feedback, independent
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