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INTST101 Complete Midterm Summary! (Chapter 1-4)

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University of Waterloo
International Studies
Brian Orend

Chapter 1September 11 2013700 PMAct I Setting the World StageChapter 1 Core Concepts and Historical ContextsCountriesOver 200 countries in the world almost all land is claimed exceptInternational waters 200 nm outside of shorePublic places that belongs to no countries Antarctica international waters near spaceInternational airspace 20 miles upNorth pole all claimed due to developed countries close to itMENA Middle East and North Africa regionSouth pole is the most inhospitable place on earthTragedy of the commons when things are held in common the asset decays and falls apart due to no one responsible Top languages of the world by first languageChinese Mandarinfor the loss No one cares to no incentive to preserve itSpanishCurrent example Giant pacific garbage patchEnglishNo one is responsible for itHindiUrduArabicA country includes territory natural resources population people culture highlow state governmentTop religions of the world Christianity IslamCulture is a way of life Lowcommon or wide spread forms of belief and behaviour Secular No religiondaily lifecommon habitsEat drink socializelanguageCore infrastructure water housing transportation clothing education healthcareEntertainmenttechnologyReligionHighthe very best of that societyDASPORAspread of populationWhat we put in museums or what we teach childrenGround breaking works of art music of great beauty architecture famous literatureNation peopleState government that rule the peopleNation statecountryState vs NonState ActorsNonstate actors nongovernmental groupingsState Actors the governmentMultinational Corporations MNCMake the rules and enforce themNongovernmental organization NGOLegislation and executive powers cops militarySocial MovementsDefend society from domestic criminals and foreign invadersOccupy movementControl membership immigration and border controlDecide whats legal and notInterest GroupsSet the ground rules for every thingMADDMassive financial resources via taxationNational Rifle AssociationRepresent that society to the rest of the worldChurchesReligions OrganizationsDecide war and peace economic and social policies build Mediainfrastructure respond to public emergencesArmed ForcesHuge impact on our livesTerrorist groups Violence against civilian populationsInsurgent Forces revolutionary armed groupsPrivate Militias Angry guys with gunsPrivate Military Corporation PMC MercenariesGuns for hire professional soldiersBlackwater now AcademieState formation200000 years agohumans first appearedCity states has a tight knit sense of communityNomadic huntersgathersTiny city states ultimately failed due to economies of scale and military invasion10000 years agofirst agricultural settlementtownsBabylonMesopotamia now Iraq8 BCEGreek citystatesFailure to unite all Greek speaking citystates led to the ultimate conquest first Alexander the Great and then the Roman empire 146 BCE500 AD to 500 BCRoman Empire first great European Empire1500 ADEuropean nationstateStatesHow did states form and then spreadFirst in Europe then via European imperialism colonialism 14921945 then to the rest of the worldModern state is an attempt to occupy the best of both worlds between tiny Greek citystates and huge cosmopolitan empires eg RomeLogic of EmpiresColoniesEmpire a system of governance forged in military conquestDependenciesRoman Empire Most successful in the history of the worldFrom Britain to Egypt from Spain to SyriaSurvived 1000 yearsRelationship represents AbstractlyConquestRelationship entails ConcretelyDominationMilitary forceProtectionPolitical leadershipExploitation InvestmentSome citizenship rightsMetropoleMother cityMother countrycoreFailure of empiresToo big to govern efficientlyToo many people groupsRelationship Represents AbstractlyIncompetent late leadersDefeatRelationship entails ConcretelySubjectionPolitical allegianceExtractionTaxesObedienceBrain drain of the best and brightestNatural resources After RomeColoniesNear East remodelled to the Byzantine EmpireWest had more wars and dissolved into small ethnic groupsNot much information survived hence the dark ages 500 1000 ADWarlords started conquering territory and reuniting landTreaty of WestphaliaLatin from the Roman Empire was not usedDeal struck to end the thirty years of warMany new languages were derivatives of LatinLive with differenceFrench Italian and Spanish Middle Ages 10001500 ADDecide what prevails in your own countryRise of modern nationstateMidsized territoryPolitical sovereigntyCommon language and literaturethe right of a group of people to rule themselves INTST101 Page 1 Latin from the Roman Empire was not usedDeal struck to end the thirty years of warMany new languages were derivatives of LatinLive with differenceFrench Italian and Spanish Middle Ages 10001500 ADDecide what prevails in your own countryRise of modern nationstateMidsized territoryPolitical sovereigntyCommon language and literaturethe right of a group of people to rule themselvesOwn kings and queensThe right to make its own laws respect the right of all other countries to do the sameOwn customs and foodOwn religionwanted to break away from the Roman CatholicTerritorial integrity a community or country has a right to some liveable territory and all natural resources on it resulted in the thirty years war 16181648not having it invaded or stolen from othersNow how did the rest of the world comes to this system Westphalian SystemEnd of European ImperialismEuropean colonialism and imperialism15001975Fierce competition between European nationBiggest richest and most powerful empire1492 the new world is discoveredEmpires rebornLeninlogic of imperialismNew opportunity to grow power wealth and prestige for their own nation statesSystem of imperialism is set up for warA lot of resource extraction from the world to EuropeWWI 19141918 UK France Russian vs Germany AustroHungarian OttomanGood for European capitals bad for the rest of the world20 million dieAmerican colonist were the first to realize this injustice and over thrown the British ruleSpanish flu 20 more million dieAmerican Revolution 17761783Treaty of Versailles Others not so luckyBreaks up the Ottoman Empire between UK and FranceUntil the end of WW2 1945Start of Wests involvement in the middle eastInconclusive warSevere punishment on GermanyProblems led to the support of Nazi PartyWW2 1939194570 million diedNo one can afford an empire anymore19451995 decolonizationArguably still going onLeaves a power vacuum for the localsCold War 19451991USA vs USSRNo actual war too many nukesProxy war pawns to fight between themselvesVietnam USA vs Communists China and USSR 19541974Afghanistan payback for USANorth vs SouthDeveloped vs developingNorthSouthMore Developed Less developed75 of the population25 of the world populationWhy moreWhy lessWealthHealthPowerEducationTechnologyUrbanizedImmigrantsSocial peaceStable governanceLife expectancyEvenReported personal happinessWhy has the world come to be split like this European Imperialism yes but other too1Does the north owe the south anything to make up for this Later discussed in aiddevelopment2West vs The RestCivilization not meaning to be educated and wealthy and moreA pervasive culture a way of life shared by many countries impacting a large region of the world over timeWestern Civilization geographically and shared values shared way of lifeWestern Europecolonies Americas and AustraliaNew ZealandCore ideals of the WestIndividualismHuman rights to life liberty and the pursuit of happinessLimited powers democratic governmentSeen as the servant of the people kept under control by laws and constitutionDemocracy free and fair regular public elections with one person one vote and the majority rulesFree market capitalism a kind of economic system that allowsprivate corporations private property ownershipEntrepreneurial rightsInnovation competitionIncome inequalityEncourages trading free distributionFeatures a court system of public lawsFeatures money as the means of exchangeA history of Christianity though now a separation between churchstateGovernment does not try to force any religious visionCommitment to science and technology to improve peoples livesUrbanizationFavours growth and health of cities as economic social and cultural engines of modern societyRobust civil society activityAnything thats not government groupingsBusinesses to churches sports teams to NGOsNB These are idealized characteristics and Western societies dont fulfill them perfectly Nor are theseINTST101 Page 2
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