KIN330 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Summary Statistics, Internal Validity, The Control Group

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Published on 18 Apr 2013
School
University of Waterloo
Department
Kinesiology
Course
KIN330
Kin 330 Week 8
In case you want to watch the video in its entirety:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=td5Ld3nURAI&feature=g-u-u&context=G242feceFUAAAA
AAAEAA
SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS & META-ANALYSIS
Setting the stage
Sometimes there are many studies addressing the same research topic with conflicting
results
o Important to choose the best evidence to apply in practice
How do you know what study to trust?
o Highest quality study?
o Systematic review or meta-analysis?*
Summarizes results of all studies.
RECALL: Evidence-based Practice: Multi-step Process
Define the problem
o Formulate an answerable question
Track down best evidence to solve the problem
Critically appraise best evidence
Apply to the individual
o Based on clinical expertise and context
Evaluate practice outcomes
When to do a review?
There are multiple studies with results regarding a specific research question.
Those studies are relatively uniform in design.
The findings for the studies are relatively consistent with each other
There is value to be gained by understanding the actual magnitude of a statistical effect
with better precision.
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Three Types of Reviews
Narrative Reviews
Summarize findings and opinions from a numerous studies examining a topic
Summarizes large amount of data in a narrative style (tells a story)
Systematic reviews.
Similar to above, but with very specific criteria set out describing how the studies were
selected
More rigorous search strategy with strict inclusion/exclusion criteria
Meta analyses.
A type of systematic review
Systematic search strategy
Addition of calculation of effect sizes by totally results across studies
Results in QUANTITATIVE summary of findings across studies
SYSTEMATIC REVIEW/META-ANALYSIS PROCESS:
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Objective & Search Strategy
State the study objective, i.e. research question
o What is the P.I.C.O. of interest?
Develop the protocol
o Inclusion/exclusion criteria
o P.I.C.O. characteristics
o Study designs
Advantages for both including only highest quality versus broad range of study types
Only RCTs:
o Higher internal validity
o Disadvantage: May not reflect all research
o Good if area there are many studies
Broad range of research designs:
o Advantage: better reflects breadth of knowledge
o Disadvantage: some lower quality studies may bias the results
Develop the search strategy
o Databases searched
o Search terms
o Review of reference lists
Search
Conduct search
o As planned with specified inclusion/exclusion & databases
Retrieve papers
Screen & select
o Further evaluate for relevance: study objective, inclusion/exclusion criteria
Evaluation
Evaluate methodological quality
o Quality of designs & measures evaluated against standard criteria
Have evaluated strengths/weaknesses of study designs
Will spend substantial time in the remainder of this term to discuss further evaluation of
study quality
Risk of bias
Reliability & validity of measures
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Document Summary

In case you want to watch the video in its entirety: http://www. youtube. com/watch?v=td5ld3nurai&feature=g-u-u&context=g242fecefuaaaa. Sometimes there are many studies addressing the same research topic with conflicting results: important to choose the best evidence to apply in practice. Define the problem: formulate an answerable question. Track down best evidence to solve the problem. Apply to the individual: based on clinical expertise and context. There are multiple studies with results regarding a specific research question. Those studies are relatively uniform in design. The findings for the studies are relatively consistent with each other. There is value to be gained by understanding the actual magnitude of a statistical effect with better precision. Summarize findings and opinions from a numerous studies examining a topic. Summarizes large amount of data in a narrative style (tells a story) Similar to above, but with very specific criteria set out describing how the studies were selected. More rigorous search strategy with strict inclusion/exclusion criteria.

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